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Networked Learning 2016

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Monday, May 9
 

11:00am

Registration
Conference Registration

Monday May 9, 2016 11:00am - 12:45pm
Conference Reception Lancaster House Hotel

11:45am

Lunch
Lunch

Monday May 9, 2016 11:45am - 12:45pm
Foodworks Restaurant Lancaster House Hotel

12:45pm

Welcome
Speakers
NO

Nicola Owen

Nicola Owen is the Chief Administrative Officer at Lancaster University, a post she commenced in January 2013. Together with the Director of Finance, she leads the Professional Services at Lancaster. As CAO, she is the Head of Administration and has responsibility for the following administrative Divisions: Secretariat, Facilities, Human Resources, Information Systems Services, Marketing and External Linkages, Research and Enterprise Services... Read More →


Monday May 9, 2016 12:45pm - 1:00pm
Bowland 1 & 2 Lancaster House Hotel

1:00pm

Opening Plenary
Speakers
avatar for Caroline Haythornthwaite

Caroline Haythornthwaite

Professor, UBC
Caroline Haythornthwaite is Professor in The iSchool at The University of British Columbia to June 2016. She is joining the Syracuse University iSchool in August 2016. Areas of interest: social network perspective applied to questions about online organizing (notably about online crowds and communities) through social media and online conversation; focus on learning, information exchange, collaboration and knowledge co-construction... Read More →


Monday May 9, 2016 1:00pm - 2:00pm
Bowland 1 & 2 Lancaster House Hotel

2:00pm

Refreshments
Monday May 9, 2016 2:00pm - 2:30pm
Conference Reception Lancaster House Hotel

2:30pm

Symposium 1 (Introduction) Designs for learning with the Semantic Web
Symposium Introduction

This symposium aligns with the first conference theme of ‘Theories, methodologies, perspectives and paradigms for Research in Networked Learning’. Within this theme we have assembled three papers relating to designs for learning with the semantic web (Web 3.0). We plan to start the symposium with the presentation of each paper then follow with discussion of the key themes running through them. These are: 1) the emergent nature of semantic web technologies, 2) how participatory research practices like DBR are affected during the development of semantic web technologies and 3) how both of these concepts may find a new place as we move forward into increasingly complex and changeable educational environments.

Each paper critically reflects on the experience of research and development of semantic web technologies in different educational settings. We specifically focus on methodologies for research in networked learning; linking the nature of an emergent networked learning technology like the semantic web to critical reflections on our participatory research practices across multiple disciplines. This process of reflection on design for learning is described by Jones and Asensio (2002) as critical to enable us to be aware of the influences of social and cultural change in education, our own assumptions about learning, design and development and to uncover any previously unspoken issues for the field of networked learning. We draw on empirical data and experience to contribute to a research field which is concerned with aligning practice with values (Hodgson, 2012). Interestingly, very few papers presented at past networked learning conferences have explicitly considered the role of semantic web technologies in this field and none have linked this to methodological considerations for their design and development. In many ways it could be argued that the semantic web expands the potential of Web 2.0 for ICT to ‘promote connections’ in learning, which is central to the definition of the networked learning process (Goodyear, Banks, Hodgson and McConnell, 2004, p1.).

The semantic web is not a new technology; Berners-Lee at al. brought the concept to public attention in 2001 as ‘a new form of Web content that is meaningful to computers [which] will unleash a revolution of new possibilities’. But the take up of this grand vision has been patchy and development activity has been disconnected (Carmichael and Jordan, 2012). Outside of specialist fields the notion of the semantic web or Web 3.0 is not well known and the researchers in this symposium are used to the challenge of explaining the concept without a familiar online technology to which it can be associated. Much of the work of the semantic web is hidden and described in the language of the information sciences. Never the less, the potential of the semantic web has been realised for acting as a framework offering advanced search tools, flexibility in visualising data and integration of digital repositories with user-generated content (Martinez-Garcia, et al., 2012). This potential can be exciting but the ethical implications of its use in educational environments should be considered at all times as an integral part of research and development (Tracy and Carmichael, 2011). The case can be made for describing semantic web technologies as ‘emergent’ in line with the definition by Stahl (2011:p364) of ‘a technology that shows high potential but hasn’t shown its value or settled down into any kind of consensus’. However, a strict definition of emergent is hard to tie down due to the uncertainty and ambiguity of predicting future impact (Rotolo, Hicks and Martin, 2015). The impact of the emergent nature of the semantic web is considered in line with research methodologies in the papers for this symposium. Along with the challenges and responsibilities posed by developing a technology that is in continual transition and change come the possibilities for redefinition and configuration of the educational pedagogies and practices with which it can be associated. In line with participatory research methods like Design Based Research and in increasingly fractured educational systems this may have the capacity to empower staff and students in the work of knowledge management in Higher Education.

The paper by Jesper Jensen & Nina Bonderup Dohn specifically considers a Design Based Research (DBR) project where semantic web technologies were developed for teaching Biology and Chemistry in an Upper Secondary School in Denmark. The case is made that the emergent nature of the technology posed methodological challenges to the implementation of a DBR approach but also created new opportunities for flexibility in the creation of unique solutions to suit the pedagogical practices of the educational environment. This encourages stronger involvement of practitioners in the development process. Furthermore, the paper argues that DBR projects like the one described in this paper, are actually paradigmatic for investigation of educational contexts in rapid technological and pedagogical change because they not only take this change into account, but fundamentally and significantly build on them.

The participatory nature of research and development of technologies is considered further in the paper by Fran Tracy, which problematizes participatory research for the development of semantic web technologies. Here the uncertainties and contingencies that are created in the use of participatory research methods are highlighted. Empirical data from an interdisciplinary, multi-institutional technology enhanced learning (TEL) research project is used to reconsider who or what was participating in the research and also when and where that participation took place. The case is made that uncertainty and contingency in technological solutions and methodological approaches allow for enrichment of the development process and subsequently the research outcomes. Through the process of participatory research for this project new teaching practices were developed, pedagogical reflection was inspired and new technologies were developed.

The third paper by Patrick Carmichael takes an alternative approach to the analysis of the design practices used in the research and development of semantic web technologies. The neglected tradition of operaismo or 'workers enquiry' is used to reframe some of the activities and findings of a research project which sought to explore the potential of semantic web technologies in Higher Education where case-based learning was the pedagogy of choice. Operaismo has recently begun to receive attention and its potential has begun once again to be recognised as a framework for exploring the experiences of ‘precarious’ workers, including those in high-tech industries and education. This paper explores some of the insights it might offer for the design of semantic web technologies, with design being seen as a particular kind of work-based enquiry that benefits from contextual understanding and participation of multiple stakeholders and user groups.


Monday May 9, 2016 2:30pm - 2:35pm
Bowland 1 Lancaster House Hotel

2:30pm

Where have all the students gone? They are all on Facebook Now
This paper reports and discusses findings from a study carried out amongst a subset of 5th semester students (app. 80) in the programme CDM, Aalborg University (AAU). The purpose of the study was to uncover what networked technologies students use to support their studies and their problem and project based group work. We also wished to explore their rationales and motives for employing those particular tools. While there is much research into the technologies students use we understand too little about students' motives for using or choosing particular technologies (Henderson, Selwyn, & Aston, 2015). In the paper we therefore discuss the technologies they use and their motives for doing so. The study has however unearthed some deeper questions and concerns. For one thing it became apparent that students' uses of networked technologies were heavily reliant on commercial mainstream solutions. Services such as Facebook, Dropbox and Google Docs were the dominant choices of technology and students chose these - without much reflection - as they were the easiest and most widely used. Secondly, it became apparent how these services formed a completely parallel or alternative technological infrastructure to the ones offered by the institution (Moodle). These points have led us to questions such as: Should we promote more critical and reflexive discussion of technologies for learning in higher education, and what is the role of higher education institutions in relation to technological infrastructures i.e. does it make sense to maintain a learning management system if students are not using it. These are issues we raise in the final discussion.

Speakers
avatar for Thomas Ryberg

Thomas Ryberg

Professor mso, Aalborg University
I am part of the research centre: “E-learning lab - Center for User Driven Innovation, Learning and Design” (http://www.ell.aau.dk). My primary research interests are within the fields of Networked Learning, Problem Based Learning (PBL), Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) and Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL). In particular, I am interested in Networked and Problem Based Learning, and how new media and technologies transform... Read More →


Monday May 9, 2016 2:30pm - 2:55pm
Bowland 2 Lancaster House Hotel

2:30pm

Why 'one size fits all' concept and policies of inclusive education is insufficient to achieve ‘true’ inclusivity in a national context.  Insight from a tablet based disaster preparedness training programme administered in Bangladesh.
In today’s world, education is a basic human right and it is desired that every human being regardless of his or her personal and societal circumstances should get a fair chance to get access to education. ‘Inclusive education’ as a concept exists since the mid 19th century which was later translated into various international policy frameworks. Often these international policies had a push impact towards national policy agendas. Majority of the nations that adopted those international policies were hardly successful in achieving ‘inclusive’ learning practices, as because, ‘inclusivity’ has various wider (local) aspects which needs to be considered. A chronological review of relevant international policies and Bangladesh government’s policies is presented in the early segments and then shortfalls of current notions of inclusivity is explored in this paper. A brief overview is given based on the author’s experience of running a tablet based disaster preparedness training in Bangladesh over three years’ period, that used networked learning concepts to promote ‘inclusivity’. This paper also explores, how the training programme needed to broaden its perspectives to accommodate inclusivity. It was found during the training that the current notion and understanding of the term relates to only a fragment of the people to which inclusivity should be aimed. Adult learners are in a disadvantageous position as the national policies hardly mention their needs. Within a group of policies aimed to serve (special) children in education, practitioners are ill informed to support adult learners’ in formal, informal and non-formal education sector. Reports on outcome of the alternate education systems consisting of private education and NGO led training in Bangladesh noted that there is a high level of drop outs those who attend any form of training. Majority of the participants lack awareness and urges to learn about something new. Due to monotonous delivery standards the participants are disengaged quickly with the feeling that they have no voice in their learning experience. The participants crave for a system which would acknowledge and value their experience and bridge those experiences to construct something more useful. The disaster preparedness training thus had to adapt to these less explored inclusivity issues to ensure, there is a true wider ‘inclusive’ participation. This paper reinforces that, there is a need to understand the varied needs of the adult learners to ensure they are well integrated in any format of the education system, especially where cooperative learning takes place.

Speakers

Monday May 9, 2016 2:30pm - 2:55pm
Training Room 2 Lancaster House Hotel

2:30pm

(Workshop) Designs for Networked Learning: Using Personal Learning Networks to Build Intercultural Competence
Intended Audience

This workshop is intended for a broad audience: Researchers, instructors, administrators, i.e., all those interested in exploring the use of Personal Learning Networks (PLNs) for building intercultural competence.

Workshop Description

Participants will explore the use of a Personal Learning Network (PLN) for building intercultural competence. A PLN is a collection of people, information resources, organizations, and other connections that a networked individual values because the connections support and contribute to learning interests. Throughout our exploration and development of PLNs, participants will identify how these might be used to make “visible” our culturally based assumptions about identity, knowledge creation, knowledge sharing, and the knowledge most worth having. Workshop emphasis will be on both pedagogy and research and stems from recent literature on connectivism and networked learning.

Participant Engagement

Participants will engage with four activities: 1) an exploration of a set of personal learning networks (PLNs) as a means to make visible learners’ cultural orientation to knowledge, information, and learning; 2) active use of an online resource (e.g., text2mindmap.com, coggle.it, or other mapping tool) to practice building and sharing their PLNs; 3) learning about current research and envisioning future research on the use of PLNs for building intercultural competence; and 4) collaboratively mapping next steps for designs of networked learning that incorporate the use of PLNs as well as professional research networks (PRNs) as a means to build intercultural competence.

Participant Outcomes

Each participant will


  • gain an understanding of PLNs as a means to make visible learners’ cultural orientation to knowledge, information, and learning;

  • develop a visualization of his/her PLN and share this with others as a means make visible one’s cultural values toward knowledge, information, and learning;

  • explore current research on PLNs and envision future research; and

  • leave with a set of next steps for designs of networked learning that incorporate the use of PLNs as a means to build intercultural competence.


Workshop Alignment with Conference Themes

This workshop aligns most closely with these conference themes:

Designs for Networked Learning, architectures, spaces, and mobilities
Interculturality, interaction, collaboration and fusion between cultural communities whilst explicitly recognising the value of diversity
The emphasis will be both on pedagogy and research and stems from recent literature on connectivism and networked learning.

Workshop Process/Activities

• PLN exploration (15 minutes)
• PLN development (30 minutes)
• PLN research (15 minutes)
• Discussion and mapping next steps (30 minutes)

References

Duin, A.H., & Moses, J. (2015). Intercultural connectivism: Introducing personal learning networks. Rhetoric and Professional Communication and Globalization, 7(1), 29-46.

Moses, J., & Duin, A.H. (2015). Intercultural connectivism: Personal learning networks in course redesign. Rhetoric and Professional Communication and Globalization, 8(1), 22-39.

Duin, A.H. Making identity visible: Personal learning networks. Feminisms and Rhetorics Conference, Tempe, AZ, October 2015.

Duin, A.H., & Moses, J. Redesigning a Masters Program in Technical Communication to Integrate Personalized Learning Networks. Council on Programs in Scientific and Technical Communication, Cincinnati, October 2013.

Speakers
avatar for Ann Duin

Ann Duin

Professor, University of Minnesota
Professor of Scientific and Technical Communication at the University of Minnesota, USA, where my research and teaching focus on personal learning networks, international professional communication, and wearable technologies. Having served in senior administrative roles including Vice Provost and Associate Vice President for Information Technology, I have a “students first” philosophy, and my ongoing goal is to serve as a catalyst for... Read More →


Monday May 9, 2016 2:30pm - 4:30pm
Dalton Suite Lancaster House Hotel

2:35pm

Symposium 1 Problematising Participatory Research for Developing Semantic Web Technologies
Problematising Participatory Research for Developing Semantic Web Technologies

This paper contributes to a symposium on ‘Designs for learning with the Semantic Web (Web 3.0)’ by presenting the outcomes of critical reflection on methodological issues relating to the design of semantic web technologies for networked learning. Semantic web technologies show great potential for supporting networked learning but are unsettled and under-researched in educational contexts, thus classed within this symposium as ‘emergent’. The design of this emergent and complex technology is considered in relation to empirical research data from an interdisciplinary, multi-institutional technology enhanced learning (TEL) research project. The research project explored the potential of semantic web technologies in Higher Education (HE) to support the use of cases in teaching and learning. Data was collected throughout the project including researcher's wiki-based reflective research logs, transcripts from project meetings and interviews and focus groups with participants and observation notes. Critical reflection on the research process was supported through engagement with this data, which allowed the recognition of nondeterministic constructs and fluidity and contingency in research practice. Therefore, this paper problematises participation by highlighting uncertainties and contingencies inherent in the enactment of participatory research methodology. Rather than viewing uncertainty and contingency as devaluing research, the case is made that this can allow for enrichment of the development process and subsequently the research outcomes. The flexible and emergent nature of semantic web technology matched with participatory approaches in the design of emergent technologies allows for reflection, adaptation and flexible action relating to pedagogy and practices which is essential in educational contexts that are rapidly changing. The findings highlight the uncertain and contingent nature of (1) the settings where design took place; (2) acceptance or rejection of research methods; and (3) the community groups that emerged as interested parties in our work. Vignettes from two different research settings are used to show how participation was enacted reflectively and responsively leading to some positive outcomes; including the development of new teaching practices and new technologies, which were fed back into the open source development of educational semantic web technologies. Therefore, researchers in the field of networked learning are encouraged to ‘design with participatory research’ to match the challenges posed by complex and emergent technologies and changeable educational contexts rather than attempting to apply standardised forms of design methodologies.

Speakers

Monday May 9, 2016 2:35pm - 3:00pm
Bowland 1 Lancaster House Hotel

2:55pm

OOPS! Or, Designing an Intercultural Online Participatory Seminar in the Spirit of Highlander Folk School
Seeking to build a relational, reflexive, dialogical, and praxis-oriented online learning space to engage intercultural teaching and learning, an experienced educator of future teachers and a graduate student in youth leadership developed an open seminar that embodied its content (intercultural, inclusive learning and teaching) in praxis.  As teachers and activists rooted in pedagogies emerging from social justice movements, we are committed to discussion practices and learning spaces that embody citizen leadership practices of the Highlander Folk School: relational, reflexive, and praxis-oriented. We sought to do this in an online space that encouraged these types of networked learning connection between learners, teachers, and the materials we brought together. We attempt - in designing, facilitating, and assessing the course - to address three compelling, emergent questions:

  • How do we design a seminar as an open, online learning space where teaching professionals explore richly diverse pedagogical histories, intercultural and inclusive learning theories, and boundary crossing practices through dialogical discussions? (Coffield and Edwards, 2009; Lather, 1991)

  • How do we counter repressive tolerance - the practice of allowing all voices to be heard, even those playing on systemically harmful narratives (racism, sexism, classism, heterosexism, ableism.)? (Brookfield, 2007)

  • • How do we wrestle with the pervasive "problem of time" (Wallace 2000) - practitioners' on-going hope to infuse multicultural learning and teaching practices that is often side-lined by perceptions of there not being time enough to "deal with" classroom diversity, or support enough to "get to" the work of building more intercultural learning and teaching practices?


Building the OOPS! with learning circles in mind allowed us to link to Dennen (2008), and Pentland (2014), who investigate effective discussion patterns across learning spaces.  Both underscore the importance of short, overlapping, dense interactions via comments generated in response to discussion prompts.  Dennen adds that in-built practices of meta-cognitive reflection further support knowledge creation and longterm learning.  Pentland adds that such discussion practices are necessary within high-performing cooperative groups working to understand why or whether to validate or invalidate emergences of consensus and dissent.  Drawing on Elbow, Wallace, Dennen, and Pentland, we named our discussion process as improvisation, asking students to "yes, and" in responding to course springboards and others' words. Learners took this very seriously; most conversations took a tone of expansion and seeking understanding, even when contentious issues arose.This paper outlines the process of designing the seminar, briefly examines how it functioned, and closes with ideas for exploration with NCL participants.

Speakers
avatar for Ilene Dawn Alexander

Ilene Dawn Alexander

Teaching and Learning Consultant, University of Minnesota
avatar for Alexander Fink

Alexander Fink

University of Minnesota


Monday May 9, 2016 2:55pm - 3:20pm
Training Room 2 Lancaster House Hotel

2:55pm

Designing for Dialogue and Digitality in Higher and Continuing Education
This study investigates and contrasts three scenarios of further education; presence lessons and two types of blended learning. It addresses the conceptual challenge of creating learning designs for online learning communities of practice (COPs) with a focus on 'collaborative digital dialogue as the curriculum' (CDDC). The aim of the study is to identify the mechanisms that spawn and maintain collaboration and dialogue in digital/online discussions. Emphasis is put on locating the essential pedagogic-didactic elements giving rise to peer-to-peer dialogue, collaborative knowledge building (CKB) and reflection. As a basis for exploring, identifying, assessing and discussing pertinent elements in pedagogic design of online learning in COPs, we apply as the analytical optic a framework of Critical Realism (CR). In exploring the notion ‘nexus of cognition' (NOC) and the emergence of an ‘open source learning stream' (OSLS) in digital dialogue (DD), unfolding in virtual learning environments (VLEs), the paper further investigates the appropriateness in this respect of diverse scaffolding mechanisms, reaching from phatic teacher comments to academic, scaffolding video-clips. The empirical basis for studying these design aspects is constituted by learning designs from, both a University context and a University College context. The findings and discussion resulting from the analysis suggest that a meta-communicative learning-to-learn (L2L) approach to dialogue in the pedagogic aspects of the learning design may be fruitful in highlighting and promoting the establishment and maintenance of a collaborative digital dialogue that is conducive to deep learning in digital CoPs unfolding in VLEs. Consequently, we suggest development of hybrid designs that synthesise the dialogical advantages of online dialogue, the convenience of teacher-produced videos and the intensity of being together in actual reality.
We acknowledge the deleuzean point that the virtual is just as real as the actual and in this context the virtual is even more real than the actual. The online dialogue becomes 'a pure place' while the conversation in the presence lesson becomes 'polluted'. The online dialogue achieves a virtual purity of 'one discourse' whereas the presence lesson contains multiple discourse of which some are relevant to the learning process and other have a more private character. We promote a hybrid design that put the students in the centre of the dialogue, which means that only when they engage in the dialogue will they be engaged in learning.


Monday May 9, 2016 2:55pm - Monday September 5, 2016 3:20pm
Bowland 2 Lancaster House Hotel

3:00pm

Symposium 1 Challenges and possibilities for Design Based Research with semantic web technology
Challenges and possibilities for Design Based Research with semantic web technology

This paper addresses the first conference theme of Theories, methodologies, perspectives and paradigms for Research in Networked Learning. The three key themes of the symposium (Designs for learning with the Semantic Web) are discussed by exploring the methodological challenges and advantages that one may experience when conducting design based research with emergent technology. In particular, when technological solutions are developed more or less from scratch, simultaneously and in interaction with the pedagogical practices which make use of these solutions. The outset for this paper is a Design Based Research (DBR) project, which we are currently carrying out at a Danish high school. The project involves development of technological tools based on semantic web (web 3.0) technology. These tools are developed simultaneously and in interaction with the pedagogical practices utilizing the tools. We seek to address the aforementioned main question of the paper by, first, reviewing the stages of DBR-processes as presented by Amiel & Reeves (2008), second, presenting the specific DBR project which is our outset, and third presenting a set of methodological challenges and advantages we have experienced in our work on this project. Through the discussion presented in this paper, we draw attention to several noteworthy challenges and advantages of developing and utilizing emergent-technology-based tools in DBR. Some of these challenges concern the potentially intangible nature of emergent technology and the difficulty of communicating the potentials of the technology to practitioners and other involved parties. Other challenges are more strongly connected with the practical development process. Similarly, we explore noteworthy advantages such as emergent technology potentially granting a greater level of creative freedom in development of solutions and tools while greatly encouraging teacher and student involvement in the development process. This further provides an opportunity for a stronger focus on designing with practice in mind. In addition, the paper argues that DBR projects like the one described in this paper, are actually paradigmatic for investigation of educational contexts in rapid technological and pedagogical change because they not only take this change into account, but fundamentally and significantly build on them.

Speakers
avatar for Nina Bonderup Dohn

Nina Bonderup Dohn

Associate Professor, University of Southern Denmark
I am interested in philosophical and pedagogical aspects of networked learning - and of knowledge and the design for learning in general. In my research I try to bridge between epistemological analyses of what knowledge is and practical pedagogical recommendations I do this by analyzing learning theoretical implications of the former for the design of pedagogical practice - and conversely by challenging the philosophical analyses with the... Read More →


Monday May 9, 2016 3:00pm - 3:25pm
Bowland 1 Lancaster House Hotel

3:20pm

Reclaiming distributed cognition in networked learning: An inter-subjective, socio-material perspective
On the tenth anniversary of the networked learning conference I am looking back at developments in identifying the sites of learning in networked learning design and praxis. Beginning with McConnell’s (1998) premise that collaboration is central to the development of democratic ‘learning communities’ and Jones’ (2000) relational perspective on the role of technologies in connecting learners, tutors, and learning resources, I examine early critiques of community and the implications of those critiques for design, tutoring, and assessment practices. I then turn to a discussion of interrelated human and technological agencies and a historical trajectory of design foci at the resource, task, and activity levels. Tensions between research orientations that focus on individual learning and those that focus on collective learning are traced to associated theoretical perspectives and methodological choices. The construct of the individual mind and the notion of connectivism are critiqued. The agencies of socially constructed technologies to distribute learning capacities across networks are examined for insights into and implications of differing approaches to collective coordination of social-material practices. In concluding this retrospective, I return to the critical and humanistic roots of networked learning and introduce Hodgson, de Laat, McConnell, and Ryberg’s (2014) call to “transcend the dualism between abstract mind and concrete material social practice” (p. 3).I use discourse analysis to critique contemporary cognitivist, computational conceptualizations of the individual mind and the resultant focus on instructionalist underpinnings in broader educational technology approaches to design. I argue that this perspective on cognition is reductive: focused on teacher-designer-researcher control, hierarchical perceptions of learning contexts, and suggest the quest for designed orchestrations of learning processes has led to an assumption that the efficaciousness of learning can simply reside in resources. The computational, cognitivist perspective on design is contrasted with Conole’s (2006) rejection of resource-level foci on design and with Goodyear, Carvalo, and Dohn’s (2014) distinctions among designable tasks and emergent activities; situated conceptualizations of affordances and mutually constitutive perspectives on the relationships among material social practices and learning. The “reclaiming” section of the paper examines three pre-computational conceptualizations of distributed cognition as embodied, integrated with socio-material artifacts, and enacted through practices. I conclude with looking forward to a time where pre-computational conceptualizations of distributed cognition provide links to networked learning theory, a route to transcending dualisms, and opens new examinations and problematizations.

Speakers
avatar for Gale Parchoma

Gale Parchoma

Associate Professor, University of Saskatchewan


Monday May 9, 2016 3:20pm - 3:45pm
Bowland 2 Lancaster House Hotel

3:20pm

Resisting the Final Word: Challenging stale media and policy representations of students' performative technological encounters in university education
This article explores powerful, constraining representations of encounters between digital technologies and the bodies of students and teachers, using corpus-based Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). It discusses examples from a corpus of UK Higher Education (HE) policy documents, and considers how confronting such documents may strengthen arguments from educators against narrow representations of an automatically enhanced learning. Examples reveal that a promise of enhanced ‘student experience' through information and communication technologies internalizes the ideological constructs of technology and policy makers, to reinforce a primary logic of exchange value. The identified dominant discursive patterns are closely linked to the Californian ideology. By exposing these texts, they provide a form of ‘linguistic resistance' for educators to disrupt powerful processes that serve the interests of a neoliberal social imaginary. To mine this current crisis of education, the authors introduce productive links between a Networked Learning approach and a posthumanist perspective. The Networked Learning approach emphasises conscious choices between political alternatives, which in turn could help us reconsider ways we write about digital technologies in policy. Then, based on the works of Haraway, Hayles, and Wark, a posthumanist perspective places human digital learning encounters at the juncture of non-humans and politics. Connections between the Networked Learning approach and the posthumanist perspective are necessary in order to replace a discourse of (mis)representations with a more performative view towards the digital human body, which then becomes situated at the centre of teaching and learning. In practice, however, establishing these connections is much more complex than resorting to the typically straightforward common sense discourse encountered in the Critical Discourse Analysis, and this may yet limit practical applications of this research in policy making.

Speakers
avatar for Petar Jandric

Petar Jandric

professor, Zagreb University of Applied Sciences


Monday May 9, 2016 3:20pm - 3:45pm
Training Room 2 Lancaster House Hotel

3:25pm

Symposium 1 Semantic Web Learning Technology Design: Addressing Pedagogical Challenges and Precarious Futures
Semantic Web Learning Technology Design: Addressing Pedagogical Challenges and Precarious Futures

Semantic web technologies have the potential to extend and transform teaching and learning, particularly in those educational settings in which learners are encouraged to engage with ‘authentic’ data from multiple sources. In the course of the ‘Ensemble’ project, teachers and learners in different disciplinary contexts in UK Higher Education worked with educational researchers and technologists to explore the potential of such technologies through participatory design and rapid prototyping. These activities exposed some of the barriers to the development and adoption of emergent learning technologies, but also highlighted the wide range of factors, not all of them technological or pedagogical, that might contribute to enthusiasm for and adoption of such technologies. This suggests that the scope and purpose of research and design activities may need to be broadened and the paper concludes with a discussion of how the tradition of operaismo or ‘workers’ enquiry’ may help to frame such activities. This is particularly relevant in a period when the both educational institutions and the working environments for which learners are being prepared are becoming increasingly fractured, and some measure of ‘precarity’ is increasingly the norm


Monday May 9, 2016 3:25pm - 3:50pm
Bowland 1 Lancaster House Hotel

3:45pm

Manifesto Redux: making a teaching philosophy from networked learning research
The Manifesto for Teaching Online is a series of short statements first written in 2011 by the Digital Education group at the University of Edinburgh.  It was designed to articulate a position about online education that informs the work of the group and the MSc in Digital Education programme it leads. This position was perhaps best summarised by the first of the manifesto statements: Distance is a positive principle, not a deficit. Online can be the privileged mode.Such a position was (and to an extent still is) at odds with dominant discourses of digital education that described it either in terms of replication of offline practices, or in terms of inadequacy, where online learning is the ‘second best' option when ‘real' (face-to-face) encounters are not possible or practical. We rejected both of these positions, and the instrumental approaches to online education that tend to accompany them.The manifesto was initially developed over a period of a year, June 2010-May 2011, and it was further shaped and refined during a series of discussions and events among students and colleagues at the University of Edinburgh. Responses to the document ranged from excitement to discomfort, and when the manifesto was launched in early 2012, it was met with considerable interest. It was intended to stimulate ideas about creative online teaching, and to reimagine some of the orthodoxies and unexamined truisms surrounding the field. Each point was deliberately interpretable, and it was made open so that others could remix and rewrite it. In early 2015, the Digital Education group itself began to revisit and reassemble the manifesto, with new points covering emerging issues such as openness and ‘massiveness' in online education, teacher automation, new research on spatiality and temporality, and digital authorship.This paper discusses the way the manifesto has changed between 2011 and 2015 to reflect shifts in the field of research. In addressing some of the themes and issues informing the 2015 version, it discusses what we believe to be some of the most pressing critical issues facing practitioners of networked and digital education in the current moment.

Speakers
avatar for Jen Ross

Jen Ross

University of Edinburgh
I'm part of the Centre for Research in Digital Education at the University of Edinburgh, co-creator of the E-learning and Digital Cultures MOOC (EDCMOOC) and the Manifesto for Teaching Online (https://onlineteachingmanifesto.wordpress.com), and former director of the MSc in Digital Education programme (http://digital.education.ed.ac.uk).


Monday May 9, 2016 3:45pm - 4:10pm
Bowland 2 Lancaster House Hotel

3:45pm

Gross National Happiness in the Context of Networked Learning
Gross National Happiness (GNH) has attained considerable interest as an alternative to the prevalent profit-driven global economy. It is a general prescriptive theory of development, putting happiness at the center rather than economic growth. This theory is originating from Bhutan, but can be applied in any society or area of society; in business, in government, etc. Education is seen as instrumental in implementing a GNH society. With the intent to infuse GNH in the Bhutanese education system all school principals, district education officers, heads of the Royal University of Bhutan (RUB) colleges, and selected academics from RUB colleges were trained to infuse GNH in the country's education system in 2010. How to implement it is a exhilarating challenge, where some educational efforts will be addressed without technology playing a key role, whereas other will utilize networked technologies. In this paper, we theorize outline what GNH may mean in a networked learning context, and as concretization, how networked learning can support infusion of GNH in education. The unfolding of the possibilities are based on conceptual analysis and existing literature, and illustrated by empirical data from the country where GNH is supposedly most devotedly pursued in Bhutan. For example all developmental activities plans and proposals are screened through GNH lens administered by the GNH Commission before approval for implementation by the agencies and organizations. We structure our finding through three relevant areas of ICT support of GNH; Outcome, message and medium. GNH as outcome concerns learning outcomes, GNH as message is when GNH is included in learning materials and curricula, and GNH as medium regards the learning environment designed according to a certain set of principles. While all areas are somewhat evocative, we find ICT-support for the medium the most promising for further research in networked learning. GNH consists of a number of domains, which can be seen as describing an environment, such as cultural diversity, conscious time use, and organic learning materials and buildings. This can be built into online and blended learning environments, and be followed by investigations on what kind of learning that unfolds in them. By exploring the three areas, we sketch a possible research program of GNH. We find GNH a promising agenda that deserves further design-based inquiry.


Monday May 9, 2016 3:45pm - 4:10pm
Training Room 2 Lancaster House Hotel

3:50pm

Symposium 1 Plenary
Monday May 9, 2016 3:50pm - 4:15pm
Bowland 1 Lancaster House Hotel

4:10pm

Is technology enhanced learning an interdisciplinary activity?
This paper describes an approach to working in educational technology informed by the recognition of the subject as a major current site for interdisciplinary activity. Currently the most popular term for educational technology embraced in the UK and in the EU is Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL). We draw on the literature on interdisciplinary and multi-disciplinary working, contemporary rationales for interdisciplinarity as an imperative for meeting the challenges of knotty real world problems, and the experience of working in interdisciplinary teams in TEL. The purpose is to establish the particular features of this collaborative research effort. This perspective from literature and contemporary rhetoric around practice is supplemented with reference to several interview studies of TEL project teams. These studies outlined the advantages in terms of growth, multiple perspectives and design methodologies but also the challenges in terms of sustainability, career progression and publication, the benefits of technologies for communication within teams and distinctive working practices (Jordan et al. 2012, Conole et al., 2010, Scanlon et al., 2013).


Monday May 9, 2016 4:10pm - 4:25pm
Bowland 2 Lancaster House Hotel

4:10pm

A global blueprint for enhancing opportunities for people with disabilities to access and succeed in higher education
This presentation will share the intercultural learning from the SWING project (Sustainable Ways to Increase Higher Education Students’ Equal Access to Learning Environments). This was a two-year project funded by EU Tempus, involving partnership between four European (EU), one Egyptian and two Moroccan higher education (HE) institutions. The overarching aim of the project was to bring together partner expertise to share best practice to support students with disabilities in accessing and optimizing their chance of succeeding in HE through the use of assistive technologies (AT). Research illustrates that there is still much work to be done in levelling higher education experiences for disabled students (Vickerman & Blundell, 2010).The project team investigated the current state of accessibility for disabled people in the EU and the partner countries in terms of national and international legislation, HE policy and practice. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) (WHO, 2001) was adopted which is the WHO's framework for health and disability that emphasises health and functioning, rather than disability. This conception of disability when applied in an HE context suggests the need to focus holistically on the education experience in its widest sense, thus enabling students to enjoy the full benefits of involvement in student life. An appreciative inquiry approach was adopted in line with a collaborative action research style ethos. The project aimed to capture the perspectives and alter attitudes and practice at all levels including students, academic and administrative staff, technical experts and senior managers.  Having provoked change there is commitment in the partner countries to sustaining and building on what has been achieved. Partners are keen to   disseminate the project outcomes nationally and internationally, and to become flagship institutions within their own countries. Mutual benefit for the EU universities has been felt through challenging taken-for-granted practice that might have lulled universities into thinking they had levelled the field for students with disabilities. For instance, the use of IT and AT had not been optimised in our own institution prior to this project, throwing local challenges into sharp relief.


Monday May 9, 2016 4:10pm - 4:25pm
Training Room 2 Lancaster House Hotel

4:30pm

7:15pm

Springer Drinks Reception
Monday May 9, 2016 7:15pm - 8:00pm
Bowland Foyer Lancaster House Hotel

8:00pm

Dinner
Monday May 9, 2016 8:00pm - 11:30pm
Dalton Suite Lancaster House Hotel
 
Tuesday, May 10
 

9:00am

Symposium 2 (Introduction) Challenges to social justice and collective wellbeing in a globalised education system
Symposium Introduction


Abstract
Access to educational opportunity is undoubtedly extended by the availability of open learning materials, networked learning communities, and forms of open accreditation. Networked learning has, in that sense, fulfilled many of the promises of its early pioneers. The evidence is weak, however, that access to digital opportunity translates into educational success for those without other forms of educational, social and cultural capital. The distribution of functional access to digital opportunity in fact mirrors other kinds of inequality very closely, so the proliferation of networked learning opportunities can actually amplify inequalities of outcome.
Beyond individual cases, an open digital landscape for learning favours globally successful institutions, as shown by the scramble to form ‘gold standard’ open course networks among leading universities. A global market in educational content risks amplifying the hegemony of the languages, educational cultures and knowledge practices of the English-speaking global north. A parallel global market in the most able and motivated students puts further pressure on the local education systems that are most able to support those currently disadvantaged.
This symposium examines the globalised educational landscape from a radical, critical perspective. Some of us write from within schools of education with the experience of research and publishing behind us. From this perspective we assert the value of theory-informed research to highlight the contradictions, the political negotiations and the vulnerabilities of hegemonic discourses, to encourage scepticism and to challenge determinist views of our technological future. Some of us write from situations of responsibility in practice and policy settings. From this perspetive we assert that there are no technological solutions to inequality, only political and emancipatory educational actions. What tools of resistance are at our disposal within the academic labour force and in the 'world of work' adjacent to it?
Our discussions and the links among our papers represent the hope that the divide can sometimes be bridged, and that theory-based interventions in education are always possible, on the side of social justice and collective wellbeing.

Speakers
avatar for Laura Czerniewicz

Laura Czerniewicz

A/Prof, University of Cape Town
avatar for Chris Jones

Chris Jones

Liverpool John Moores University
I am a Professor in the School of Education at Liverpool John Moores University. I published a book "Networked Learning: An Educational Paradigm for the Age of Digital Networks" in the Springer book series associated with the conference in June 2015.


Tuesday May 10, 2016 9:00am - 9:05am
Bowland 1 Lancaster House Hotel

9:00am

Online conversations around digital artefacts: the studio approach to learning in STEM subjects
Studio-based learning provides a model that can be adapted for online learning. In conventional teaching settings, studio-based learning follows an apprenticeship model where students work independently or in groups, under the guidance of a tutor, using real-world activities. The ‘Using OpenStudio in STEM learning’ project has been established to evaluate the use of online studio-based learning in the Open University (UK). This paper reports our findings from the first two phases of the project which gathered data from educators who present the modules and also from a survey of students. Educators representing distance learning modules from a range of STEM disciplines including Computing and IT, Design, Engineering and Environmental Technology participated in a workshop to share information about the use of OpenStudio on their modules. A simple model of OpenStudio activities was derived from the workshop to illustrate the process of 'showing and sharing', viewing and reviewing', commenting and critiquing', and 'reviewing and reflecting' involved. Two Computing and IT undergraduate modules were then selected for more detailed analysis, one at level 1 (first year) and another at level 3 (third year). Both quantitative and qualitative data were gathered from samples of students on these modules and analysed. Comparisons between the OpenStudio model, the survey findings and Kolb’s Experiential Learning model (1984) revealed the range of student views and the diversity of students’ experiences of the learning activities, and provided some thought-provoking insights into student behaviour in carrying out the OpenStudio activities.The data suggest that students enjoy the OpenStudio activities, especially the visual nature of artefacts and the idea that shorter comments may be made, rather than longer more discursive pieces of writing. In addition to learning about their subject area, students are also learning how to give feedback to their peers and how to use the feedback they receive, both of which are important skills. Many students are confident in their own ability and are able to evaluate the feedback they receive. However, some students may lack confidence in their own ability to give feedback on the work of their peers, particularly at level 1. Importantly, there needs to be an opportunity to complete the cycle of the experiential learning model in the activity by allowing students to produce another artefact. The experiential nature of the online studio activity presents an opportunity for students to reflect-in-action as well as reflect on their actions (Schön, 1983).  

Speakers
avatar for Karen Kear

Karen Kear

Senior Lecturer, The Open University, UK
online learning, online communication, quality in elearning, distance learning
avatar for Elaine Thomas

Elaine Thomas

The Open University


Tuesday May 10, 2016 9:00am - 9:25am
Bowland 2 Lancaster House Hotel

9:00am

Designing networked learning with 4Ts
This paper tackles the issue of how to support the design of effective collaborative activities in networked learning contexts. At the crossover between the ‘learning design' and the ‘networked learning' research sectors, notions such as ‘collaborative techniques', ‘design patterns' or ‘scripts' are often used to describe and/or run online collaborative learning activities. Based on these concepts, technological tools have been implemented that reify these notions and support several phases of the learning design process, including the sharing and reuse of design representations. Despite the differences among tools, most of the them support the representation of learning designs that are already "in the designer's mind", while few technological tools specifically provide guidance and support in the early phase of the design process of collaborative activities, i.e. the conceptualization of the design. Focusing on this gap, this paper proposes a model and, based on it, a game supporting the conceptualization of online collaborative activities for networked learning contexts. Both the model and the game are based on the interplay of four variables, the 4Ts: Task, Teams, Time and Technology, regarded as the key aspects of the decisions to be made. The model suggests that, to design the online activity, the teacher/designer will need to "juggle" around with these four variables and their reciprocal relationships in a cyclic, iterative process, regardless of whether she wants to start the design from scratch or to reuse an already existing collaborative. Implemented with the aim of scaffolding such iterative process and supporting a group of teachers in the decision taking phases, the game consists of a board, representing the Time component, and of 5 decks of cards (respectively for the Task, Team, Technology, Technique and the Jokers). Each deck contains cards describing instances of Task, Team, Technology or Technique, while the Joker cards are empty and should be filled in by players with new instances. To guide the decisions, each card illustrates the dependencies between that particular instance of T and the others, thus making the decision criteria as explicit as possible and stimulating reflection on how each variable impacts on the others. Both the 4Ts model and the game have been field tested and evaluated by the developers with a group of 48 teachers. The results encourage the development of a digital version of the game, where cards are still tangible objects, and augmented reality techniques are employed to digitize the results of conceptualisation. 


Tuesday May 10, 2016 9:00am - 9:25am
Training Room 2 Lancaster House Hotel

9:00am

(Workshop) Facilitating the Professional Growth of Teachers in Networked Learning Communities (NLC)
Intended Audience
Facilitators of teacher-based NLC

Content Level
Intermediate (for facilitators who are forming or have formed NLC of teachers)

Workshop Description
Networked learning among teachers is a powerful form of professional learning as such learning informs and helps them understand their work, their influence, and their effects on themselves, their peers and their students (Lieberman & Wood, 2003). In Singapore, one of our key professional development programmes is engaging teachers in networked learning communities or NLCs. We define NLCs as networks of teachers across schools learning from one another, with one another, and on behalf of others. Networked learning is the process where individuals from different schools come together in a network to engage in purposeful and sustained developmental activities, informed by the public knowledge base, utilising their own know-how and co-constructing knowledge together (Jackson & Temperley, 2007).
One of our greatest challenges in championing NLCs is facilitating and ensuring the growth of the teachers involved. While there are numerous studies which recognise the values and purpose of NLC (e.g., Cousin & Deepwell, 2005; Day, Hadfield, & Kellow, 2002; Jopling, 2006; Katz & Earl, 2007; Lieberman, 2000), as well as studies suggesting principles and features to foster successful NLCs (e.g., Jackson & Temperley, 2007; Katz & Earl, 2010), there is a surprising lack of literature on models that operationalise networked learning. Our solution is to develop a networked learning model that guides facilitators of networked learning communities in the learning and growth of their members. In developing this model, we are informed by existing literature as well as our own research on factors of successful NLCs. We call our research-informed model SPAR© which is short for Seeding, Planning, Applying, Reviewing, Celebrating. Embedded within the SPAR© model are several established protocols and tools to guide NLC facilitators in facilitating purposeful and deep networked learning. While the model is designed and intended for teachers and teacher-educators, we believe the underlying processes will also be relevant to other non-teacher related networked learning communities. We hope to share our research-informed model with participants at NLC 2016.
Participant Outcomes
Participants will:
• understand the various principles of networked learning in the education context;
• learn about a networked learning model developed and used by the Academy of Singapore Teachers in facilitating the growth of NLCs;
• experience some tools and protocols embedded within the networked learning model; and
• have meaningful conversations with professional learning leaders from the Academy of Singapore Teachers in facilitating NLCs.

Workshop Alignment

Our workshop aligns with the theme: Designs for Networked Learning as we demonstrate to NLC facilitators how professional learning of teachers involved in NLCs can be brought about through purposeful and systematic facilitation.

 

Workshop Process

1) Introduction (20 minutes): We introduce ourselves, as well as the objectives and learning outcomes of this workshop. We then carry out an ice-breaking activity for table participants.
2) Context of Singapore education system and NLCs in Singapore (10 minutes): We provide a background of the Singapore education system and in particular, of NLCs.
3) Overview of networked learning principles (20 minutes): We introduce principles informing our model of networked learning. We ask participants to co-construct maps, connecting various domains of the literature to have an informed understanding of networked learning.
3) The SPAR© Model of Networked Learning (30 minutes): We introduce our model developed and used by professional learning leaders at the Academy of Singapore Teachers in their NLC facilitation. We share our research on networked learning. We ask participants to try out some of the tools and protocols embedded within the model.
4) Conversation about NLCs (10 minutes): We have a professional dialogue with fellow NLC facilitators on facilitating successful networked learning.

Impact of model

This workshop seeks to provide participants with a networked learning model. We are informed by the literature on networked learning in educational contexts (e.g., Jackson & Temperley, 2007; Katz & Earl, 2010) as well as our own research on factors for successful networked learning. We have used this model to guide us in the formation and facilitation of our NLCs of Singapore teachers.

Presenter Qualifications

Ms. Irene Tan is a Principal Master Teacher with the Academy of Singapore Teachers (AST), looking into planning of professional learning for teachers. She leads Master Teachers in various subjects and collaborates with educational leaders as well as strategic partners in raising the professional standards of the Singapore teachers. She started her teaching career as a Chemistry teacher in a Singapore school. Over the past 25 years, she has assumed the role of head of department and Master Teacher (Chemistry). She conducts workshops, develops resources, leads networked learning and continues to be active in research projects, publications and presentations at local and international conferences. She holds several concurrent appointments as the Chairman of Science Teachers Association of Singapore (STAS), First Vice Chairman of Singapore Association for the Advancement of Science (SAAS), Council member of Singapore National Academy of Science (SNAS) as well as a Governing Board Member for Science for the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education (SEAMEO).

Dr. Sao-Ee GOH is a Senior Specialist with AST, looking into research in professional learning. He began his teaching career as a physics teacher in a Singapore school. Over the past thirteen years, he has also worked with teachers in the School District of Philadelphia and taught student-teachers in science methods courses. He is an accomplished science textbook writer whose works include My Pals Are Here!. To date, his academic publications include professional development and complex systems in journals and proceedings. He did his undergraduate and master programmes at University of Oxford, England, and completed his Ph.D. dissertation on science teachers’ understanding and teaching of complex systems at the University of Pennsylvania, USA.

Speakers

Tuesday May 10, 2016 9:00am - 10:45am
Dalton Suite Lancaster House Hotel

9:05am

Symposium 2 The Social Life of Data Clusters: The Potential of Sociomaterial Analysis in the Critical Study of Educational Technology
The Social Life of Data Clusters: The Potential of Sociomaterial Analysis in the Critical Study of Educational Technology

This paper draws on Actor-Network Theory to argue that methods used for the classification and measurement of online education are not neutral and objective but are involved in the creation of the educational realities they claim to measure. The paper examines Cluster Analysis (CA) as a ‘performative device’ that, to a significant extent, creates the educational entities it claims to objectively and neutrally represent through the emerging body of knowledge of Learning Analytics (LA). In the conclusion, the paper suggests that those concerned with social justice in educational technology need not limit themselves to denouncing structural inequalities and ideological conflicts. At the opposite end of the ‘critical spectrum’ there is the opportunity to analyse in a more descriptive fashion how hegemonic discourses in education are legitimated through techniques and devices.

Speakers

Tuesday May 10, 2016 9:05am - 9:25am
Bowland 1 Lancaster House Hotel

9:25am

Symposium 2 Inequality as Higher Education Goes Online
Inequality as Higher Education Goes Online

This paper discusses Higher Education (HE) and changes in HE, using inequality as a frame. It provides an brief overview of the changes in the HE landscape; explains how Therborn’s 2013 equality/inequality is framework suitable for this discussion ; considers some of the key questions and implications at the global, institutional and course levels through this inequality lens; and finally asks some questions and make some suggestions for how the issues of inequality in HE could be addressed going forward.

Speakers
avatar for Laura Czerniewicz

Laura Czerniewicz

A/Prof, University of Cape Town


Tuesday May 10, 2016 9:25am - 9:45am
Bowland 1 Lancaster House Hotel

9:25am

In praise of community: the case for consensus seeking within online networks
This paper considers the idea of community in networked learning. Community is a contested concept both in terms of definition and in the ways in which we perceive the consequences of belonging to communities. While community is generally valued this has not always been the case.  One particularly compelling example of a critique of online community was offered by Hodgson & Reynolds (2005). This critique was underpinned by three key arguments: we read technology naively; community is uncritically ‘privileged’; we overstate the importance of consensus. These three propositions are analysed in detail. First, there is considerable support for the idea that we have an overly determinist view of technology with, for example, some literature routinely shifting from statements as to what technology can do to statements as to how technology is likely to be used. This is naïve as in practice technology use is likely to be differentiated and shaped by wider social cultural factors. Second, while there is some support for the idea that community is privileged, there is always a balance to be made between the opportunities provided by community (for example enabling a social life and building a social identity) with the constraints of community (for example, a bias towards conformity and suppression of counter cultural thinking). Third, there is, again, support for the idea that consensus can be forced and that it may be more desirable for learners to explore positions in counter-cultural sub groups, or to strike looser forms of association, rather than experience the tensions and restrictions of community membership. However, the paper resists the conclusion that the search for community and consensus in itself is misplaced. Instead it is suggested we should not give up on a big idea about learning – that is learning involves the public airing of difference and reaching an accommodation with others by the force of the stronger argument. It is argued the search for consensus within what we might recognise as an ideal speech community remains a valuable educational aim.

Speakers

Tuesday May 10, 2016 9:25am - 9:50am
Bowland 2 Lancaster House Hotel

9:25am

Activity centred analysis and design in the evolution of learning networks
This paper provides an overview of, and rationale for, an approach to analysing complex learning networks. The approach involves a strong commitment to providing knowledge which is useful for design and it gives a prime place to the activity of those involved in networked learning. Hence the framework that we are offering is known as “Activity Centred Analysis and Design” or ACAD for short. We have used the ACAD framework in the analysis of 20 or so learning networks. These networks have varied in purpose, scale and complexity and the experience we have gained in trying to understand how these networks function has helped us improve the ACAD framework. This paper shares some of the outcomes of that experience and describes some significant new refinements to how we understand the framework. While the framework is able to deal with a very wide range of learning situations, in this paper we look more closely at some issues which are of particular importance in networked learning. For example, we discuss the distributed nature of design in networked learning – acknowledging the fact that learning networks are almost invariably co-configured by everyone who participates in them, and that this aspect of participation is often explicitly valued and encouraged. We see participation in (re)design as a challenging activity: one that benefits from some structured methods and ways of representing and unpicking the tangles of tasks, activities, tools, places and people.

Speakers
avatar for Lucila Carvalho

Lucila Carvalho

Postdoctoral Research Associate, The University of Sydney
avatar for Peter Goodyear

Peter Goodyear

Australian Laureate Fellow, University of Sydney


Tuesday May 10, 2016 9:25am - 9:50am
Training Room 2 Lancaster House Hotel

9:45am

Symposium 2 Employability and the digital future of work
‘Employability’ and the digital future of work

This paper discusses the role of networked technologies in education through the lens of work, both the work carried out by academic and professional staff – refigured by the demands of digital institutions – and the 'employability' of graduates and college leavers that stands over their educational experience as its supposed rationale, justification and destination. The paper draws on a recent literature review and interviews with staff in UK tertiary education to elucidate the changing nature of academic work and the demands for digital capability and engagement placed on education professionals. It goes on to explore academic work as exemplary of large-scale shifts not only in the kinds of work people do but in the way work is valued, engaged in, and managed in the lifecourse. It concludes by arguing that employability needs to be opened up within the curriculum as a series of critical explorations rather than deployed as received knowledge about the kinds of learning outcome that are desirable. In the spirit of radical pedagogy, it suggests that academics support these explorations when they engage critically with the circumstances of their own digital labour.

Speakers

Tuesday May 10, 2016 9:45am - 10:05am
Bowland 1 Lancaster House Hotel

9:50am

Networked learning and problem and project based learning – how they complement each other
Networked learning is both a pedagogy and a philosophy, and so is problem and project-based learning. Both approaches have been greatly influenced by the traditions of open learning and other radical pedagogies and humanistic educational ideas of Dewey, Freire, Giroux, Rogers, Negt and others. However, despite similarities in their educational ideas and pedagogies, the two approaches differ considerably. From the beginning, networked learning has focused on the integration of information and communication technologies as well as the promotion of connections – between learners, between learners and tutors and between the learning community and learning resources. On the other hand, problem and project-based learning has been characterised by a number of combined pedagogical principles: problem formulation and enquiry of exemplary problems (anomalies), participant control, interdisciplinarity, joint collaborative projects and action learning stressing the interdependencies among learners and their engagement in the research of ill-structured and open societal problems. Building on Nicolajsen and Ryberg (2014) and Tambouris et al. (2012), the overall changes and potential in the educational digital landscape and in NL can be summarised as follows: (1) a move from hierarchical structures based on courses and topics toward more student-centred networks; (2) a change from dissemination toward horizontal patterns of knowledge exchange and peer learning; (3) a change from learning management systems (LMSs) toward personal learning environments (PLEs); (4) a move toward encouraging exchange, sharing and students’ production of knowledge and artefacts; and (5) a shift from classical curriculum toward 21st-century skills and networked digital scholarship. Within this landscape of change, the paper discusses the core principles of networked learning and problem based learning design,  respectively, addressing the ethical claim of dialogue as an I-You relation, omnipresent digital technologies and social media as connecting the learner, Castells’ concept of “space of flows” as the material arrangements of simultaneity of social practices without territorial contiguity, personal learning environments, and the positive means of interdependencies in project work. The aim of this paper is to examine the two approaches and discuss on a conceptual level how they may complement each other in the endeavour to further develop a critical pedagogy while still providing guiding principles for a practical approach to university teaching and learning.


Tuesday May 10, 2016 9:50am - 10:15am
Bowland 2 Lancaster House Hotel

9:50am

Social presence and impression management: Understanding networked learners’ cultivation of learning networks
This theoretical paper focuses on the concept of impression management to explain how networked learners’ presentations of self as part of the establishment, cultivation and use of productive social learning networks. The arguments in this paper connect social presence, which has long been considered an important element of online learning, with social capital, which has been used more recently to describe the way learners use social networks to support their learning.  These arguments are situated at the intersection of social connectivity, goal-directed learning activity and learner experience.  The broad area of interest is how learners’ goals and intentions affect their activity and behaviour in networked learning environments.  More specifically, we are concerned with how learners’ goals related to study and learning affect their intentional activity toward forming and using the social connections that constitute learning networks.  In this context, impression management is used to describe and explain how learners intentionally construct presentations of self as part of cultivating their social presence in networked learning and how that presentation of self leads to the establishment and development of connections (or ties) with others and the development of a network of productive connections which support learning.  We argue that the constructions of self are not arbitrary; rather, they are seen as intentional efforts by learners to present themselves in ways which are not only socially acceptable, but maximise the extent to which they are views as attractive partners for social learning activity.  Learners read the social environment and act intentionally in response to the social context to present themselves in ways that further their goals of productive networked learning activity.  By expressing themselves in particular ways and forming impressions of others, individuals are able to establish, cultivate and use social connections and then build social networks constituted of those connections.  Those social networks provide learners with the connections they need to generate social capital, that is, to find and use the value (or resources) through connections or relationships that constitute a network. The paper concludes with a the identification of several questions for educators to consider as part of informing their practice of networked learning and supporting goal-directed, technology-mediated social processes and the cultivation of productive learning networks.

Speakers
avatar for Benjamin Kehrwald

Benjamin Kehrwald

I work in academic development in higher education in Australia. My research interests centre on technology-mediated social processes. I do quite a lot of work with learning design, online teaching and management of large academic development projects.



Tuesday May 10, 2016 9:50am - 10:15am
Training Room 2 Lancaster House Hotel

10:05am

Symposium 2 Critical TEL: the importance of theory and theorisation
Critical TEL: the importance of theory and theorisation

This paper explores the role of theory in Technology Enhanced Learning, and the research community. We consider Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) as an example, but we strongly feel that our argument has broader application to the use of theory as part of the intellectual ‘self-defence toolkit’ that researchers and practitioners in the critical TEL community need to consider if they are to ‘resist’ the crises arising from educational globalisation. Theory can offer us the language, history, scope, and power that we need to be reflexively aware of both our own interests and those of others who are actors in the settings in which we are working.


Tuesday May 10, 2016 10:05am - 10:25am
Bowland 1 Lancaster House Hotel

10:15am

Problem and Project Based Learning in Hybrid Spaces: Nomads and Artisans
There is a need within networked learning to understand and conceptualise the interplay between digital and physical spaces or what we could term hybrid spaces. Therefore, we discuss a recent study of students from two different programmes who are engaged in long-term, group-based problem and project based learning. Based on interviews, workshops and observations of students' actual group practices in open, shared and flexible spaces in Aalborg University (AAU), we identify and discuss how students incorporate networked and digital technologies into their group work and into the study places they create for themselves. We describe how in one of the programmes ‘nomadic' groups of students used different technologies and spaces for ‘placemaking'. We then show how their experience and approach to collaborative work differs to that of the more static or ‘artisan' groups of students in the other programme. In both cases the ways of utilising space, places, tools and activities was an extremely complex interweaving of the digital and physical and of different places and artefacts over time. Thus, we argue 'placemaking' is an important practice or literacy in relation to students' 'doings of networked learning' and one that impacts on the kind and nature of collaboration that takes place.

Speakers
avatar for Jacob Davidsen

Jacob Davidsen

Assistant Professor, Aalborg University
avatar for Vivien Hodgson

Vivien Hodgson

Lancaster University Management School
avatar for Thomas Ryberg

Thomas Ryberg

Professor mso, Aalborg University
I am part of the research centre: “E-learning lab - Center for User Driven Innovation, Learning and Design” (http://www.ell.aau.dk). My primary research interests are within the fields of Networked Learning, Problem Based Learning (PBL), Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) and Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL). In particular, I am interested in Networked and Problem Based Learning, and how new media and technologies transform... Read More →


Tuesday May 10, 2016 10:15am - 10:40am
Bowland 2 Lancaster House Hotel

10:15am

Unraveling networked learning initiatives: an analytic framework
Networked learning happens naturally within the social systems of which we are all part. However, in certain circumstances individuals may want to actively take initiative to initiate interaction with others they are not yet regularly in exchange with. This may be the case when external influences and societal changes require innovation of existing practices.This paper proposes a framework with relevant dimensions providing insight into precipitated characteristics of designed as well as ‘fostered or grown' networked learning initiatives. Networked learning initiatives are characterized as "goal-directed, interest-, or needs based activities of a group of (at least three) individuals that initiate interaction across the boundaries of their regular social systems".The proposed framework is based on two existing research traditions, namely 'networked learning' and 'learning networks', comparing, integrating and building upon knowledge from both perspectives. We uncover some interesting differences between definitions, but also similarities in the way they describe what ‘networked' means and how learning is conceptualized. We think it is productive to combine both research perspectives, since they both study the process of learning in networks extensively, albeit from different points of view, and their combination can provide valuable insights in networked learning initiatives. We uncover important features of networked learning initiatives, characterize actors and connections of which they are comprised and conditions which facilitate and support them. The resulting framework could be used both for analytic purposes and (partly) as a design framework.In this framework it is acknowledged that not all successful networks have the same characteristics: there is no standard ‘constellation' of people, roles, rules, tools and artefacts, although there are indications that some network structures work better than others. Interactions of individuals can only be designed and fostered till a certain degree: the type of network and its ‘growth' (e.g. in terms of the quantity of people involved, or the quality and relevance of co-created concepts, ideas, artefacts and solutions to its ‘inhabitants') is in the hand of the people involved. Therefore, the framework consists of dimensions on a sliding scale. It introduces a structured and analytic way to look at the precipitation of networked learning initiatives: learning networks. Successive research on the application of this framework and feedback from the networked learning community is needed to further validate it's usability and value to both research as well as practice.


Tuesday May 10, 2016 10:15am - 10:40am
Training Room 2 Lancaster House Hotel

10:25am

Symposium 2 Plenary

Tuesday May 10, 2016 10:25am - 10:45am
Bowland 1 Lancaster House Hotel

10:45am

Refreshments
Tuesday May 10, 2016 10:45am - 11:15am
Conference Reception Lancaster House Hotel

11:15am

Affording Opportunities to Learn in Homework Online
In this paper we report our research into the learning opportunities created (and obstructed) for students in upper secondary education in Denmark through connecting with voluntary homework tutors on the online platform Homework Online (HO). The platform offers an integrated array of synchronic communication tools, comprising chat, video, audio, whiteboard and access to websites, including Google Docs shared between student and tutor. We utilize Harré and van Langenhove's positioning theory and Greeno's learning theoretical development thereof to analyse the interaction between tutors and students. Our research questions are 1) How are students positioned in particular interactions on HO and how does this contribute to the opening and closing of their opportunities to learn (OTL)? 2) How do the different affordances of HO's communication tools affect the positioning process? We identify the primary communication channels as chat and audio, respectively. We find an overall tendency for tutors and students in collaboration to position themselves within a storyline of teacher-student-interaction, but this storyline of teacher-student-interaction plays out in different ways, as 'teacher-explaining-to-student', positioning the student as recipient, and as 'student-prompted-by-teacher-to-think', positioning the student with agency. The latter opens OTL for the student in the form of engaging in the conceptual and disciplinary practices of the curricular subject, i.e. of developing active conceptual understanding as well as necessary disciplinary skills. The former at most opens OTL in the form of 'legitimate peripheral observation' of such practices, but closes the OTL of active participation in them and thereby also the chance (in this situation) of developing active curricular understanding and skills. Our data show that the different affordances of audio and chat do not lead to fundamental differences in basic positioning patterns and evolving storylines, but that audio affords positioning to conceptual agency better than chat. Similarly, the auditory channel affords active dialogue and supports interpretation of interaction much better than chat does. Still our data show that more important than the difference between chat and audio for the positioning of the student as accountable versus as to-be-explained-to is the use made of the whiteboard, especially the question whether the student, the tutor, or both in interaction are in charge of writing on it.

Speakers
avatar for Nina Bonderup Dohn

Nina Bonderup Dohn

Associate Professor, University of Southern Denmark
I am interested in philosophical and pedagogical aspects of networked learning - and of knowledge and the design for learning in general. In my research I try to bridge between epistemological analyses of what knowledge is and practical pedagogical recommendations I do this by analyzing learning theoretical implications of the former for the design of pedagogical practice - and conversely by challenging the philosophical analyses with the... Read More →


Tuesday May 10, 2016 11:15am - 11:40am
Bowland 1 Lancaster House Hotel

11:15am

Visualising structure and agency in a MOOC using the Footprints of Emergence framework
Reviews of research into MOOCs have identified two areas needing further research; the individual learner experience and the role of the teacher/facilitator. In this paper we examine the teacher/facilitator’s role as MOOC designer in achieving an appropriate balance between structure and agency in the design of a specific MOOC, and consider whether this balance was achieved by analysing the learners' experience of this MOOC. To do this we used a tool known as Footprints of Emergence, which enables designers, teachers, learners and researchers to visualise the course design and their learning experience in any course. Drawing Footprints of Emergence requires deep reflection on 25 factors which influence learning in complex learning environments, such as MOOCs.The context for this research was the Competences for Global Collaboration MOOC (cope15) offered by FH Joanneum, in Graz, Austria, in Spring 2015. Through negotiation and taking advantage of a diversity of competences and experiences, the team designed a hybrid learning space with a multitude of resources and learning paths. They used an approach which combined Salmon's model for moderating small groups of learners with the principles of connectivism and the structuring of xMOOCs. In using this approach the teachers needed to adopt unfamiliar roles as open practitioners and relinquish control over their students. The visualisation offered by the design footprint of cope15 helped to frame their discussion and planning.The MOOC design required learners to assume responsibility for their own learning, deal with uncertainty and be open to a holistic learning experience. At the end of the MOOC they were asked to draw a Footprint to reflect on their learning experience and provide a written reflection. 30 participants agreed to their Footprints and written reflections being analysed for this research. The Footprints show that a balance between structure and agency was achieved for these learners. They experienced neither too much prescription nor too much chaos in the MOOC design and learning processes. These preliminary findings suggest that attention to structure and agency using the Footprints of Emergence visualisation tool enables the design of a MOOC to meet learners’ needs, and supports end of course reflection and evaluation.

Speakers
avatar for Jenny Mackness

Jenny Mackness

Independent
Independent researcher interested in learners' experiences online (particularly in MOOCs), participation in online communities of practice, teaching and learning in open learning environments, rhizomatic learning and emergent learning,



Tuesday May 10, 2016 11:15am - 11:40am
Bowland 2 Lancaster House Hotel

11:15am

CmyView: Walking together apart
Networked learning practices are impacting the field of cultural heritage, both tangible and intangible, with implications for the way in which places of cultural significance are understood, managed, documented, engaged with and studied. Our research explores the intersection between walking, photography, technology and learning, investigating how mobile devices can be used to foster community participation and assess social value within a networked framework for digital heritage. The paper introduces CmyView, a mobile phone application and social media platform in development, with a design concept grounded on both digital heritage and networked learning perspectives.  CmyView encourages people to collect and share their views by making images and audio recordings of personally meaningful sites they see, while walking outdoors. Each person’s walking trajectory (along with their associated images and audio files) then becomes a trace-able artefact, something potentially shareable with a community of fellow walkers. The aim of CmyView is to encourage networked heritage practices and community participation, as people learn to assess their own and experience others social values of the built environment. Drawing on a framework for the analysis and design of productive learning networks, we explore the educational design of CmyView arguing that the platform offers a space for democratic heritage education and interpretation, where participatory urban curatorship practices are nurtured. CmyView reframes social value as dynamic, fluid and located within communities, rather than fixed in a place. The paper presents preliminary findings of the activity of a group of four undergraduate students at an Australian university, who used CmyView to explore the immediate surroundings of their campus. Participants interacted with the platform, mapping, capturing, audio recording their impressions and sites of interest in their walks. In so doing, they created shareable trajectories, which were subsequently experienced by the same group of participants on a second walk. The paper concludes with a discussion about the impact of our research for the design of mobile technologies that embrace participation and sharing, through a networked learning perspective. The paper brings together concepts that sit at the intersection of previously separate fields, namely digital heritage and networked learning, to find their synergies.

Speakers
avatar for Lucila Carvalho

Lucila Carvalho

Postdoctoral Research Associate, The University of Sydney
avatar for Cristina Garduño Freeman

Cristina Garduño Freeman

Lecturer, Architecture and Built Environment, Deakin University
Digital Media, Architecture and Heritage!


Tuesday May 10, 2016 11:15am - 11:40am
Dalton Suite Lancaster House Hotel

11:15am

Effective team formation in networked learning settings
Professional development can be achieved by interacting with the abundance of learning materials provided by Internet-based services and by collaborating with other learners. However, knowledge sources are scattered across the Internet, while suitable co-learners are hard to find. Learning professionals require strong self-direction powers to fully benefit from these resources. However, these are not readily available in all learners. Based on social-constructivist/connectivist collaborative learning theory and team formation theory, a model is presented for the effective formation of teams engaging in structured collaborative learning. The model describes the creation knowledge domain representations by centralising learning materials from various sources. It allows learners to define structured learning tasks and provides an answer to the question whether a particular learning task can be addressed sufficiently well in the knowledge domain. Based on team formation theory, it provides the means to form teams of mutual learners and peer-teachers based on bridgeable knowledge differences (an interpretation of Vygotsky's "zone of proximal development") and personality aspects. The model also allows recommending suitable learning materials to the teams. A selection of tools is presented to afford an implementation of the model. These consist of an implementation of the method of Latent Semantic Analysis, a validated learning team formation algorithm and the Big Five personality test. The model is subsequently tested. The results of this test indicate that representations of knowledge domains can be successfully created and that the fit of learning tasks to the learning materials in the domain can be assessed. An experiment with learners (n=64) shows that the implementation can successfully assess prior knowledge and that collaborations based on prior knowledge differences do lead to knowledge gains. Furthermore, learners highly appreciate the learning materials suggested. However, the evidence for a level of knowledge difference between learners at which learning becomes most effective is currently limited. The results are discussed, and conclusions and directions for future research are included.


Tuesday May 10, 2016 11:15am - 11:40am
Training Room 2 Lancaster House Hotel

11:40am

A paradigm shift rhetoric and theory-practice gap in online higher education: A case study of an open university
In this paper, I critically examine a theory-practice gap existing in online higher education (HE) with a particular focus on the significant discrepancies between social constructivist learning theories and actual instructional design (ID) practices in an open university context. I perceive theory not as universal or scientific truth but as a historical and discursive product (Foucault, 1970). In this perspective, the theory-practice gap is both the result and the evidence of the disjunction between the common understandings (or discourses) about online HE and the actual state (or realities) of it. This is, therefore, a much more complex social and educational phenomenon than simply a pedagogical issue of how to apply the legitimate learning theories to appropriate ID practices. To better grasp the complexity, I first describe the evolution of instructional technologies and theories of distance education (DE), a predecessor of online education. Second, I analyze one wide-spread academic discourse that has propagated online education as a new learning paradigm in HE and suggested social constructivist theories-informed instructional practices as a better way of doing online HE. This analysis is followed by a qualitative case study of the actual ID practices and circumstances in an open university in North America. By examining the gap between instructional theories and practices in this particular HE context, this study provides insights about how the gap has come into being and some valuable lessons for future research. At this moment, we are witnessing how the rhetoric of the learning paradigm shift in HE has become the doctrine we pursue to further produce the imperative of providing online education across all HE institutions including residential universities. Unless we challenge the social press of this rhetoric and deconstruct our current perspectives on online education, we can neither slow down this seemingly inexorable shift to online education nor fully grasp the actual state of online HE in which the theory-practice gap may continue to increase. Thus, this study ultimately aims to question our current taken-for-granted assumptions about legitimate online HE practices largely influenced by the rhetorical and come up with a more helpful lens to approach the theory-practice gap.

Speakers

Tuesday May 10, 2016 11:40am - 12:05pm
Bowland 1 Lancaster House Hotel

11:40am

MOOCs, openness and changing educator practices: an Activity Theory case study
The practices and perceptions of educators formed through the creation and running of a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) provide a case study of how educators understandings of ‘openness' change (Beetham et al 2012, p 3). We are interested in how educators engage with open education resources (OER) and openness as part of developing open online courses, and how this informs their practices and attitudes afterwards. Deepening understandings of these changes is important for informing strategies involving helping educators in adopting productive open educational practices. Our research question is how do educators' practices change or not change when using - or not using - OER in and as a MOOC? We are interested in whether and why educators adopt open practices in their MOOCs. We employ an Activity Theory (AT) conceptual framework as a heuristic tool to track and thickly describe educators' practices and perceptions. This frame enables us to locate educators' practices - in a context of mediating nodes, i.e., tools/artefacts, rules, divisions of labour, and community - as they strive towards and consider their object. The object upon which the educators act is the development of a new interdisciplinary field. We focus on the role of two mediating artefacts introduced into the activity system, namely Creative Commons (CC) licenses and the ‘MOOC design'. We describe how the open aspect of these artefacts mediate and affect educator's perceptions, attitudes and educational practices in the context of their object-directed activity system. We draw predominantly on semi-structured interviews with the MOOC lead educators and the MOOC learning designers. Interviews were conducted at two time intervals, before and after the MOOC has run. From this we craft two activity systems. We have categorised our findings according to Beetham et al's dimensions of open practices. Further, two broad themes emerged from the data analysis. These are Affordances of the MOOC and Reflection on educational practices

Speakers

Tuesday May 10, 2016 11:40am - 12:05pm
Bowland 2 Lancaster House Hotel

11:40am

Tools for entertainment or learning? Exploring students' and tutors’ domestication of mobile devices
This paper presents findings from a research project at a school of humanities, languages and social science at a UK university that investigated staff and student attitudes towards and uses of mobile devices (smartphones, tablets and laptops). The study had a dual focus on personal and university-related uses. It applied the domestication of technology approach (Silverstone & Hirsch, 1992) to understand how mobile devices have been appropriated by users in their everyday lives, how they have become part of daily routines and spatial arrangements and what rules are being negotiated around their use. Data in the present study was collected via in-depth interviews with 18 teaching staff and six focus groups with a total of 19 students across different departments in the school. This paper presents findings on device acquisition and ownership, device use and associated meanings, as well as situating devices within daily routines and spaces. In each section, results from the staff and student data are compared. The research identified distinct uses of different devices in terms of university-related and personal uses but also areas of overlapping use. Furthermore, students and tutors associated important symbolic meanings with their devices, had incorporated them into daily routines and spatial arrangements in new ways and attempted to self-regulate use in different situations. While tutors were starting to make use of mobile devices in their teaching practice in innovative and meaningful ways, students had a less well defined understanding of the educational benefits of mobile devices. Institutional policy also played a role in shaping students’ and tutors’ use. Not many empirical studies exist that explore the link between educational and personal, everyday use of mobile devices. It is in this area that this research aims to make a contribution to knowledge. The findings are also of importance to practitioners and educational institutions planning to implement mobile device-based learning.


Tuesday May 10, 2016 11:40am - 12:05pm
Dalton Suite Lancaster House Hotel

11:40am

Image-sharing in Twitter-based professional conversations
This paper reports on ongoing research into the image-sharing practices of two informal professional networks, one dedicated to midwives and the other dedicated to teachers, on Twitter. Each network is brought together through regular, loosely synchronous Twitter conversations, created through the use of an identifying hashtag. In both cases, the conversations have been initiated by practitioners with the explicit intention of creating a space for sharing ideas, practice, experience and opinions. Community members are relied on to provide facilitation, to promote the conversations and, in one case, to suggest conversations themes. These kinds of informal professional conversation may thus serve as somewhat hidden, but potentially influential, sites of professional learning.As with most social media and mobile communications, Twitter has become increasingly saturated with images. Indeed this may be a particularly strong trend on Twitter because images can be used to convey a great deal more than might easily be said in the 140 characters users are limited to in each tweet. Professional conversations are no exception to this, with images accompanying tweets with increasing frequency. Images, then, may provide a rich alternative to research focusing on the text of tweets.
This paper describes research using such images as foci for the study of the flow of information, opinion and affect amongst the two professional groups described above. Starting with a period of extended observation of both conversations, the research proceeded to in-depth interviews with a small number of practitioners who were also active participants, in which images previously published during the Twitter conversations were used as prompts. Methods developed to visualise and make sense of the relations between images and users during the conversations, and ultimately to identify candidate interviewees and prompt images are described.The research makes use of philosopher Gilles Deleuze's concepts of lines of articulation, lines of flight and knots to draw out some of the factors affecting flows through the conversation-spaces. It appears that there are at least three broad factors - the technical affordances for communication provided by Twitter, individuals' notions of online professionalism, and individuals' sense of the purpose of the conversation-space - that create lines of articulation and flight, constraints and uncertainties that accelerate, amplify or impede these flows. These lines twist and knot, resulting in a socio-technical disciplining that conditions the conversations and both reveals and hides aspects of professional life.

Speakers
AW

Anna Wilson

PhD student, University of Stirling


Tuesday May 10, 2016 11:40am - 12:05pm
Training Room 2 Lancaster House Hotel

12:05pm

‘Hospitality at a distance’: supervisory practices and student experiences of supervision in online Masters dissertations
This paper is informed by a one-year research project which looked at supervisory practices and student experiences in the context of fully online Masters programmes.  In these programmes, students are often based in different country locations to their dissertation supervisors, and some may never visit the university campus. The research project examined supervisory practices and processes across four online programmes in the social sciences and medical education, including workshops with supervisors, and explored the Masters dissertation experiences of eighteen graduates who had studied on one of the four selected postgraduate programmes taught fully online from the University of Edinburgh.In this paper, we focus on the recurrent theme of ‘connection and disconnection’ which emerged from our analysis of interviews with recent dissertation students. This theme is considered in relation to student accounts of positive experiences of support and continuity in supervisory relationships, juxtaposed with reports of disconnection and isolation during the dissertation process; experiences which were often accepted by graduates as an inevitable part of working on an independent research project.Building on Ruitenberg's (2011) work on 'an ethic of hospitality' (situated by Ruitenberg as an alternative to the ‘ethics of autonomy, virtue and care’ (p.28) in education), we explore these experiences within the theoretical framework of 'hospitality at a distance'. We propose that ‘hospitality at a distance’ is a useful framework in the context of distance education supervision, where home and host, the ‘at-home’, might be contested, and, we suggest in this paper, where we might need to rethink what it is to, ‘leave space for those students and those ideas that may arrive’ (Ruitenberg 2011 p.33) from beyond the campus. We also suggest that achieving ‘success’ in dissertations at a distance may involve accepting the instability of relations between student and supervisor, that are marked not only by power dynamics, expectations, and performances of student and teacher identities (as all supervisory relationships are), but also by the varied and shifting conceptions of home, welcome, and ‘belonging’ that accompany the distanced encounter.

Speakers
avatar for Jen Ross

Jen Ross

University of Edinburgh
I'm part of the Centre for Research in Digital Education at the University of Edinburgh, co-creator of the E-learning and Digital Cultures MOOC (EDCMOOC) and the Manifesto for Teaching Online (https://onlineteachingmanifesto.wordpress.com), and former director of the MSc in Digital Education programme (http://digital.education.ed.ac.uk).


Tuesday May 10, 2016 12:05pm - 12:15pm
Bowland 1 Lancaster House Hotel

12:05pm

Effectiveness of Guests in Large Enrolment Online Courses as an Instructional Strategy
This paper introduces preliminary findings of an evaluation of the design-effectiveness of the guest instructional strategy focusing on guest speakers' effectiveness for learning (Costello, 2012; 2014a, b) and enhancing social presence (Short, Williams & Christie, 1976) in a networked learning course. HKR 1000, Fitness and Wellness, is an introductory online course widely subscribed by students at Memorial University, seeing about 1000 yearly registrations. In each of the three (fall, winter, spring) thirteen-week semesters, sections of 80 students are virtually combined into one course shell within the learning management system (LMS), Brightspace, formerly Desire2Learn (D2L). In the spring and fall 2015 semesters the design-effectiveness of the guest instructional strategy was evaluated based on students' perspectives (N=688). Effectiveness was determined by whether guests impacted student learning, related to course content, provided real life relevance, and fostered social presence. While large enrolments in online courses are not typical or favoured, it is possible to effectively design instructional strategies that use social learning (Rohr & Costello, 2015) to enhance learning and social presence. Content for HKR 1000 focuses on key topics for living healthy, active lifestyles, including basic principles of physical fitness, cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, body composition, nutrition, stress and weight management. To further highlight the link between real world experiences and course content, guest video presentations and discussions were included in the online course environment. Guests bring a unique perspective to a learning community as an integral, authentic resource impacting student success both in their learning and their professions (Costello, 2014b, Finkelstein, 2006). The use of guests as an instructional strategy (Costello, 2014a, Lowenthal, 2009) also served as a means to increase social presence in the course. The guests each appeared for a week during the semester, their topics being tightly linked to specific course content. Each had a unique, relevant area of expertise to share and provided a short 2-4 minute video clip and engaged in discussion with the students in the LMS discussion forum for the remainder of their respective week. An anonymous survey was administered in the learning management system to collect student feedback on these matters. Questions explored whether the students viewed the videos, posted questions, and read the discussion forums. In addition students were asked to reflect on the approachableness and warmth of each guest. Results indicate a positive guest impact on student learning, provision of real life relevance and enhancement of social presence.

Speakers
avatar for Jane Costello

Jane Costello

Sr Instructional Designer, DELTS - Memorial University of Newfoundland
stor is a learning object repository that aims to promote an atmosphere of sharing where learning objects can be searched, reused, repurposed and contributed. A learning object is a digital, open educational resource that is created to assist in a learning event.Developed by Memorial University’s Distance Education, Learning and Teaching Support (DELTS), stor began as a repository to house forty years of multimedia objects and assets created by... Read More →


Tuesday May 10, 2016 12:05pm - 12:15pm
Bowland 2 Lancaster House Hotel

12:05pm

Breaking the boundaries of space and time: A review of applications of bring-your-own-device in higher education
Throughout history, various technologies have been used to bridge the boundaries of time and space, from 19th-century postcard education to present day mobile technology. Previous reviews examining the first decade of the new millennium showed many research projects using institutionally owned equipment, mostly supporting a teacher-centred approach and with a focus on content delivery. With the rapid development of small, portable and smart devices since 2007, devices becoming ubiquitous in the lives of students of today, has the focus of research changed? This paper reviews journal articles published 2009-2014 with the aim to examine how mobile devices are applied to bridge the boundaries of space and time in higher educational settings, and thereby supporting networked learning for the campus classroom as well as the online student. A search in major databases for English language journal articles was conducted with phrases "mobile learning" and "higher education". We found 109 articles indicating some form of bring-your-own-device (BYOD) philosophy. Categorizations were made primarily based on the abstracts. About 85 per cent of the articles were empirical in nature. Another eight per cent were theoretical and/or argumentative. The remaining articles were reviews, method development or meta-analyses. Subjects of study in the empirical articles were primarily students, but also faculty or a combination of those appears. Geographically, most studies are concentrated in the English-speaking parts of the world, although for instance Sub-Saharan Africa could benefit from development in this area. Not surprisingly, the top three countries by number of publications are USA, UK and Australia. About a third of the articles did not deal with the dimensions of time and space explicitly. Several of the non-empirical articles are among them, and so are a group of empirical articles that examined behavioural intents, perceptions, and attitudes amongst students and faculty. The principal phenomena studied with respect to the bridging of time and space was social media, the most common variety being podcasting, followed by text- and instant-messaging and social networking. Another group addressed how learning management and support systems could be developed to better support flexibility in time and space, or attitudes, intentions and perceptions regarding mobile learning implementations. Results indicate a shift from teacher-centred content delivery approaches towards student-centred communicative approaches. Recent improvements in network infrastructure and device usability seem to afford this development for teachers and students alike. However, a more thorough analysis of the material is required to validate such a claim.

Speakers
avatar for Jimmy Jaldemark

Jimmy Jaldemark

Associate Professor, Mid Sweden University
avatar for Marcus Sundgren

Marcus Sundgren

PhD Student, Mid Sweden University
PhD Student in pedagogy with specialization in e-Learning and Mobile Learning


Tuesday May 10, 2016 12:05pm - 12:15pm
Dalton Suite Lancaster House Hotel

12:05pm

Dimensions of social learning in teacher education: an exemplary case study
Growing attention can be noticed for social learning in teacher groups as a stimulus for teachers’ professional development. Research shows the importance of understanding the role and impact of informal social networks on teacher professional development. This paper describes a rich case study of student teachers, in-service teachers and teacher training educators collaborating in networks. Based on the ‘Dimensions of Social Learning (DSL)-Framework’ that includes 4 dimensions and 11 indicators of social learning, the present study observes and facilitates the social configuration of a learning group of primary (student) teachers and their educators. The purpose of the case study is 1) to translate the theoretical DSL-Framework into a form recognized by educational practice, and 2) find social configurations that support roles of (student) teachers in learning networks. The following research questions were formulated: 1) In what way can the DSL-Framework help to bring the group configuration into focus? 2) Which social configuration on dimensions and indicators supports student teachers’ role in a group together with teachers and educators? These questions are answered by video-recordings of group activities, reflective notes, the use of an online learning environment and semi-structured interviews. Data analyses were accompanied by an intervention with the purpose to translate the theoretical DSL-framework to a practice-based tool for evaluating and guiding learning networks. The research findings demonstrate that teacher groups can reflect on the learning group's social configuration by means of compiling an image with the DSL-framework. The resulting image allows teachers to analyse whether their group's configuration fits its learning goals, or that adjustments are required. In this way, professional development within teacher learning groups can be improved. Besides general recommendations for facilitating social learning in teacher groups, the study explicitly searches for ways to optimise student teachers’ role in a group of teacher experts.

Speakers
avatar for Antoine van den Beemt

Antoine van den Beemt

Assistant Professor, Eindhoven University of Technology
Assistant professor at Eindhoven School of Education (ESOE, Eindhoven University of Technology) working as teacher educator and researcher in the domain of teacher professional development (TPD), with an emphasis on 'Learning with ICT' and networked learning. | | Specialties: teacher professional development, networked learning, learning with ict, interactive media, (technology enhanced) learning, education, (serious) games, practice based... Read More →


Tuesday May 10, 2016 12:05pm - 12:30pm
Training Room 2 Lancaster House Hotel

12:15pm

Socialization and Social Capital in Online Doctoral Programs
Online doctoral programs are gaining in popularity, both among students and institutions. However, research to date on the effectiveness and popularity of such programs has looked largely at either measures of student satisfaction or of administrative effectiveness and design. Further, previous research has also tended to focus on the early part of doctoral study, particularly coursework. This mixed method study, conducted on three different programs within in a department of educational research in one university in UK will contribute to the literature in two important ways. First, it will look specifically on current and recently graduated student experiences from of the thesis component of the doctoral program using a demographic and experiential survey and following up with more in depth interviews to better understand students' motivation and goals for enrolling in their program and what kinds of academic experiences and knowledge they both bring to, and receive from, their program. Second, we will analyse the data through two lenses, that of academic socialization to help identify how academic identity changes over time, and that of social capital to help us understand the individual trajectories of students through their programs. Results will contribute both theoretically and practically to our understanding of student experience of the thesis process in online doctoral programs.

Speakers
avatar for Clare Brett

Clare Brett

OISE/University of Toronto


Tuesday May 10, 2016 12:15pm - 12:25pm
Bowland 1 Lancaster House Hotel

12:15pm

Third Spaces of Learning in Open Courses: Findings from an Interpretive Case Study
In this case study, I present an interpretive exploration of five open participants' learning experiences in a massive open online course (MOOC), which was offered by a higher education institute in the United States as a general education course in research writing. There were two types of enrolment in the course: formal (students who enrolled in the course for credit, six sections) and informal (open participants). Open participants had access to the public activities of the learning community, but they did not receive any academic certification, evaluation, or grading from the instructors.Blogging was central to all educational activity in the course. Learners and instructors openly blogged during the course and beyond in response to the class assignments and on other areas of interest. In this study, participant blogs are conceptualized as social spaces created by a multitude of interactions (e.g., with content, instructors, other learners, the imagined audience). These spaces were the starting point for the researcher to examine five open participants’ learning activities in the course. Primary data collection methods included interviews, participant observations, and document and artefact analysis. Thematic analysis of data illustrates how open participants participated in the course in multifaceted and unique ways and created third spaces of learning—spaces that are neither informal nor formal and that create opportunities for learning to occur in emergent and authentic ways (Cronin, 2014; Gutierrez, Rymes, & Larson, 1995). These spaces were possible because learners' informal identities, skills, and networks were welcomed into formal learning and capitalized on as important learning resources.I present two typologies that point to the self-directed and authentic nature of open participation within those spaces: (1) open participants created unique course histories through their blogs, (2) open participants did not follow the formal learning path. These findings suggest that the traditional markers of success in formal education (e.g., sustained engagement, course completion, directly measurable outcome) might be insufficient to frame participants’ involvement in open online courses. The diversity in learner goals and roles calls for a need to shift the focus of open online courses from the end product to the learning process and challenges formal narratives of success and failure in open online courses.

Speakers

Tuesday May 10, 2016 12:15pm - 12:25pm
Bowland 2 Lancaster House Hotel

12:15pm

Non-commissioned Officers' learning through Work in the Finnish Army
Lifelong learning and competence development is crucial to organizations' success in today's world. As part of public governance in Finland the Finnish Defence Forces view themselves as a learning organization and workplace learning is considered to be a central tool for competence development in the military. A case study about learning through work was conducted in one army unit's three companies. The case study was a part of a larger study analysing networked learning in the conscript-training companies of the Finnish Defence Forces. The study aims to bridge the located research-gap by providing theoretical insights on the collective and individual workplace learning practices of instructors. Theoretical tools offered by knowledge-creation theory and cultural-historical activity theory were used. The knowledge-creation metaphor of learning views learning as collective artefact-mediated activity to produce something new. Cultural-historical activity theory highlights the meaning of culturally-mediated tools and artefacts in moulding the object of activity. A second important point of entry for the study was the realisation that studying individuals learning activities required to situate the learning individuals in their activity system. Drawing from these theoretical foundations workplace learning was understood as object-oriented activity in which tools and personal networks of the subjects play a major role in the individual and collective learning processes. Combining the theoretical foundations with analysing documents and norms concerning competence development in the FDF provided the starting point for an abductive process the researcher used to state the research questions. The analysis focused on the agency of the non-commissioned officers and the expansive and restrictive features of the studied companies as well as the tools, artefacts and personal networks important to learning. Empirical data was collected with semi-structured interviews and egocentric network interviews. The data was analysed with phenomenography and the visualised egocentric networks were analysed qualitatively. The preliminary results suggested that the organization viewed itself as expansive and supportive towards learning. However social affordances and active guidance towards learning were lacking. Active agency was required to succeed in the studied military organization and certain tools were well-known and commonly used in competence development, but new tools were not actively developed. It seems that there is a need to actively create and consolidate new learning practices. Personal networks play a major role in the instructors learning and they can be surprisingly broad and different, which suggests that they are carefully and personally constructed through one's work history.

Speakers
OP

Otto Pekkarinen

Teacher, National Defence University
I'm a Phd-student at the Finnish National Defence University since 2011. My research interests are military pedagogy, competence development and workplace learning


Tuesday May 10, 2016 12:15pm - 12:25pm
Dalton Suite Lancaster House Hotel

12:25pm

Designing for online homework guidance
This paper presents the preliminary research work on developing and conceptualizing methods and models for homework guidance and support of the training program offered by Homework Online (HO). The presented models are: Curriculum framework for homework guidance, Scenes of Guidance and Model of guidance methods. HO is an organisation led by State Library in Aarhus, Denmark. It manages the cooperation with municipalities, schools and universities with the aim to build, provide and operate a number of call centres for homework guidance in secondary education. The call centre offers guidance in an online environment. A part of the organisation Homework Online is to offer a training program that recruits and trains volunteer tutors. Homework can be defined as "tasks assigned to students by school teachers that are meant to be carried out during non-school hours" (Cooper, 1989). The purpose of homework is to extend learning beyond the classroom. Online homework guidance is the delivery of academic guidance in cyberspace where the communication between a trained academic homework tutor and learner is facilitated by using computer-mediated communication technologies (Richards & Viganó 2012). This guidance takes place through the use of a text- or audio based, synchronous communication program and a shared screen. The tutor and the learner don't know each other. The potential of homework online guidance is that student can access specialised expertise and get academic guidance specific to the learner's curricular challenges. The concept of HO is an example of ‘networked learning' where interactions between people are mediated by computer/information technology (Goodyear & Carvalho, 2014). Furthermore HO is an example of a ‘learning design', where it guidance activities is designed for learning on the basis of a pedagogical model. In this paper we report our research on the process of developing and testing new pedagogical models for homework guidance. We utilise pedagogical models as theory (Conole 2013) and Design Based Research (Gravenmeijer & Cobb 2006) as a methodology to investigate two research questions: 1. What kind of learning design (concepts and models) can contribute to develop HO's training program for new tutors in a way that can stimulate the strategically reflection of the educational designers of HO? 2. In what way can the new learning design contribute to the development of the tutors' competences in action and reflection on their role and practice as tutors? 


Tuesday May 10, 2016 12:25pm - 12:35pm
Bowland 1 Lancaster House Hotel

12:25pm

Troubling the Blurred Boundaries of Online Professionalism
Recently, professional associations have issued new guidelines that apprehensively embrace the use of social media encouraging their members to use the medium ‘appropriately'. In the academic literature, a discussion has been taking place around ‘online professionalism' or ‘e-professionalism' with some in professional education beginning to ponder about how to facilitate the development of this extended form of professionalism. Within both of these discourses, the trope of boundary blurring is often invoked as an indication of the challenging potentials of social media to the professions and professional education. However, little regard is given to what these boundaries are and how they are formed. In this short paper reporting on research in progress, I seek not to blur the boundaries but to trouble them - to bring them more in focus and to treat them as an assemblage through an ANT analysis for the purpose of informing how we educate for professionalism.Theoretical approach: Employing an Actor Network Theory sensibility, this research reconceptualises boundaries as networks - heterogeneous assemblage of bodies, devices, technologies, algorithms, standards, representations etc. Thus, materials move from factors in boundary practices to actors constructing the boundaries in a process of generative materiality. As they are networks, boundaries are being made and re-made as the relations are constantly being performed (Latour, 2005). Moreover, networks are not inherently consistent. Parts of the network may be in conflict creating fissures and tensions. Applying this to boundaries, therefore, would allow for an analysis that explores, as Law (1992) has put it, "the precarious mechanics of organisation" (p. 389). It will inquire about what is invited and what is excluded in the boundary practices of online professionalism as well as tracing specific ways things are enacted - what enables or constrains these enactments. It will also explore what effects these assemblages produce.Methodology: The research will focus on two groups of pre-professional students in their final year of education, one from social work and the other from nursing. It will follow a three stage design. The initial stage is an individual interview where vignettes are employed to stimulate reflection on online professionalism and to draw out the boundaries of concern. The second stage is a group interview where participants discuss digital artefacts that may surprise or push boundaries. The last stage involves individual participants tracing their digital footprint with the research investigating the materialities that assemble into their notion of online professionalism. 

Speakers

Tuesday May 10, 2016 12:25pm - 12:35pm
Bowland 2 Lancaster House Hotel

12:25pm

Teachers defining mobile learning: Conceptualisations emerging in a development project
From a historical perspective, new ICTs have rapidly been introduced in the development of higher educational settings. Such introductions have led to new ways of bridging the boundaries of time and space. In recent decades, this development has conveyed that mobile devices and social media have found their way into the teaching practices of higher education settings. However, before being implemented in the ordinary activity of teaching practices of higher education, these applications are often embraced in development projects that aim to raise the quality of higher education. One particular problem that arises in such projects is how teachers understand and conceptualise the areas of focus of the projects. One issue in projects that emphasises the introduction of mobile learning in higher education relates to how teachers define and conceptualise mobile learning. This short paper emphasises aspects of this problem. It aims to discuss and analyse emerging conceptualisations and definitions of mobile learning in higher education teaching practices. The study deals with the research question: What emerging conceptualisations and definitions of mobile learning in the teaching practices of higher education appear among teachers who participate in a development project? The project is currently in the first stage, including preliminary results from the analysis of empirical data from interviews and from observations of online teaching within six courses in a Swedish higher education institution. The interviews comprised open-ended questions. Online observations include data taken from two sources; the first source includes online dialogues of students and teachers recorded in learning management systems and various social media applications; the second source includes documents related to the teaching in the sampled courses. The initial analysis indicates that in the studied development project, different conceptualisations and definitions of mobile learning emerged. Various meanings were emphasised by the teachers of what mobile learning means and how it relates to the design of courses and to their work as teachers. Such differences might relate to interests, knowledge, beliefs and how they link mobile learning to their own processes of life-long learning. Nevertheless, the emerging definitions of mobile learning from the included teachers are preliminary in this stage of the research. To reach a more thorough understanding of the research question, the empirical data need further analysis. Moreover, the results need to be illustrated with excerpts from the interviews and the data recorded in the LMS and the additional applications applied in the studied educational settings.

Speakers
avatar for Jimmy Jaldemark

Jimmy Jaldemark

Associate Professor, Mid Sweden University


Tuesday May 10, 2016 12:25pm - 12:35pm
Dalton Suite Lancaster House Hotel

12:35pm

Triggering dialogic activities across networks
Our study originates in exploratory interventions aimed at engaging students with relevant practices to support  learning both in and about digital environments. Our students come from a wide range of professional contexts all over the world. Most are involved in teaching or supporting teaching. What they learn on our programme is carried into their practice - and vice versa. Their introductory course explores a range of environments along with critical literature, with a strong theoretical emphasis. The authors both have an interest in dialogic approaches to education, and we share findings on activities designed and tutored by each of us. A webquest and an online text augmentation exercise were both found to promote student creativity, dialogue and learning.  While we had respectable pedagogical reasons for these activities, our subsequent reflections and conversations about them suggested that they were worthy of further theoretical analysis.  Our students demonstrated considerable use of existing networks while at the same time apparently generating new networks that would sustain them throughout a programme of study and beyond. Drawing on Wegerif's (2013) notion of dialogic and its Bakhtinian influences, we attempt to distinguish and name features of networks likely to trigger dialogic exchanges that foster learning. We have isolated examples from each practice of particularly ‘interanimating' sections of dialogue and created a thick description of them, including their antecedents and consequences. Our examples illustrate that both practices raised questions about purpose, offered opportunities for showcasing knowledge and connections, led to sharing and making practices visible, and were taken forward to new contexts. The findings are not all positive; we have also identified concerns about exclusion or inadequacy from those who feel unable to participate fully, but even then there is potential to turn around difficult situations. This study might have practical application for learning designers but should also be of theoretical interest for research into newer forms of academic literacy.

Speakers
avatar for Christine Sinclair

Christine Sinclair

Lecturer in Digital Education, University of Edinburgh
I'm a lecturer on the MSc in Digital Education at the University of Edinburgh. I am also a graduate of this programme which I undertook to find out what it was like to be an online student. For 20 years prior to that I was involved in educational development at three other Scottish universities. I'm fascinated by the relationship between networked environments and academic texts of all kinds – and especially the complex ways that students... Read More →


Tuesday May 10, 2016 12:35pm - 12:45pm
Bowland 1 Lancaster House Hotel

12:35pm

Trace ethnography: working with data from learning and assessment
The multitude of practices that make up education are increasingly being shaped by data production. The digital interactions that have been intensifying existing data production technologies have been accompanied by novel ways of creating, sharing and presenting these data to educators and learners and have been influencing how educational attainment is represented, performed and managed. This presentation outlines possible ways of investigating how data about educational interactions and attainment are produced as well as discussing the characteristics of ‘trace data'. It explores methodological approaches that allow the researcher to follow the distributed agency of hypermobile digital actants. Drawing upon software studies influenced by material semiotics code is regarded as an actant, or an entity capable of having agency within the socio-material networks that produce e-assessment data. Methodically, this presentation investigates the digital data produced by human actants as well as coded ones and as such includes the log files, automated messages and algorithms that produce ‘trace data' that can be used to reconstruct e-assessment events as socially and digitally co-constituted. Combined with ethnographic fieldwork, interviews and documentary evidence, this methodological approach is known as trace ethnography. In this respect, e-assessment is investigated not as a psychological or technical instrument used to ‘gather' or ‘collect' data. Rather, it is seen more from an anthropological standpoint as a practice. In particular, digital assessment practices are presented as a site of investigation for digital ethnography. I argue that assessment and its associated technologies are key to understanding how semiotic modes are rendered comparable through table-reliant data production practices that in turn influence educational practices. The presentation concludes with suggestions for how researchers, practitioners and other stakeholders can make decisions informed by an understanding of how data are produced by the various epistemic communities that perform the work of data production.

Speakers

Tuesday May 10, 2016 12:35pm - 12:45pm
Bowland 2 Lancaster House Hotel

12:35pm

When we have never been human, what is to be done? Exploring posthumanism within the context of networked learning
This paper contributes to the growing interest in a posthuman turn within education. While posthumanism has been of interest in the humanities and in social sciences, a lack of conceptualisation of posthumanism within networked learning has been to networked learning’s loss. In this paper, I engage with this concern throughresponding to a question posed by Donna Haraway, “When we have never been human, what is to be done?” In the first of three movements, I bring forward the very ordinariness of our posthuman condition. Conceptualising posthumanism as a very ordinary manifestation allows for conversations that need not wait for the arrival of, nor self-identification with, an exotic or semi-alien entity. There is no need to wait for some evolutionary manifestation involving some sense of advanced or superior beings. We need not wait on the arrival of some oddity. Taking, the very ordinariness of the posthuman condition as our common state, the second movement then brings forward appreciation for relationality. This second movement follows a logical progression from accepting ourselves as being made in association to seeing other entities as similarly co-constructed. This second movement positions technology as more than a mediator. Rather than technology being positioned as something we might use, technology is presented as an actor of influence both shaped and shaping. In the third movement, a more political stance is brought to designs for networked learning. A decentered approach to network learning allows not only for the influence of myriad actors to be traced but also provides a challenge for how the voices of quieter actors might be heard. Theorising networked learning and design for networked learning, begs the question as to whose stories are told and whose perhaps should be. In the telling of such stories, however, representation becomes a challenge: In whose language should such stories be told? Should a story be told in the in the storytellers “voice” or does it require the language a reader is accustomed to? In this short paper, I make use of an experimental method to bring forward the voice of an otherwise silent actor. In this particular telling, there is a playful provocation for a narrative told differently. With the ability to hear voices different to one’s own, a glimpse of realities different from one’s own might then be known.

Speakers
AH

Ailsa Haxell

Auckland University of Technology


Tuesday May 10, 2016 12:35pm - 12:45pm
Dalton Suite Lancaster House Hotel

12:45pm

Lunch
Lunch

Tuesday May 10, 2016 12:45pm - 1:45pm
Foodworks Restaurant Lancaster House Hotel

1:45pm

Second Plenary
Sian Bayne is Professor of Digital Educaiton at the University of Edinburgh, based in the Moray House School of Education. She directs the Centre for Research in Digital Education and teaches on the MSc in Digital Education. Her research is currently focussed on critical approaches to teacher automation, open and distance education, and the application of theories of critical posthumanism to digital education. More information about her work is on her website at: http://sianbayne.net

 

Speakers

Tuesday May 10, 2016 1:45pm - 2:45pm
Bowland 1 & 2 Lancaster House Hotel

2:45pm

Refreshments
Tuesday May 10, 2016 2:45pm - 3:15pm
Conference Reception Lancaster House Hotel

3:15pm

Why and How Do Members Provide Help For Others Within Online Communities?
This paper looks at how and why people help others in the online communities to which they belong. It begins with a discussion of the motivation to help both as it has been discussed as a trait of being human as well as a practice within online community. It discusses the importance of helpfulness for sustaining community life and the different motivations (both altruistic and personal interest) members have for offering help. It then reports on a study of an online group of independent game developers within the online community GameSalad. The study utilised a mixed method approach for data collection, including exploratory observation, online survey, and remote individual interviews. Data collection took place over a period of 11 months. The focus for this particular paper is that part of the study dealing with help and draws primarily on the interview data. Here five themes were identified: motivation; modes; preferences; effect; issues, each with a number of sub-themes. Some of the reasons for giving help were predictable from the literature. In particular, helpers were aware of the need to sustain the community and in many cases felt an obligation to offer help as a return or ‘pay forward’ for the help they had received in the past. Those giving help were motivated by community mindedness, empathy, self-confidence and sense of self. The paper goes on to throw new light on the strategies used for giving help and the circumstances under which help is more likely to be offered. In particular, while the giving of help depends on ‘mood’, this mood is generated when helpers feel they have the available time, relevant expertise in order to help but also when those asking for help have asked in an appropriate manner and provided sufficient contextualisation. Help was generally offered by signposting past debates and by producing bespoke artefacts to demonstrate particular features of the software. It is suggested that participation, and the giving of help, within a community is shaped by past patterns and traditions.

Speakers
avatar for Hafiz Hanif

Hafiz Hanif

Doctoral Researcher, University of Warwick
An autodidact. A doctoral researcher, and an Academic Technology Project developer at the University of Warwick. Apart from worrying about my thesis on online participation, I also worry about web technologies, including its designs in respect to UI and UX. I do front-end web development as well and a bit of backend, if you want to know.


Tuesday May 10, 2016 3:15pm - 3:40pm
Bowland 1 Lancaster House Hotel

3:15pm

Academics' online connections: Characterising the structure of personal networks on academic social networking sites and Twitter
Academic social networking sites (SNS), such as Academia.edu and ResearchGate, seek to bring the benefits of online social networking to academics' professional lives. Online academic social networking offers the potential to revolutionise academic publishing, foster novel collaborations, and empower academics to develop their professional identities online. However, the role that such sites play in relation to academic practice and other social media is not well understood at present.Arguably, the defining characteristic of academic social networking sites is the connections formed between profiles (in contrast to the traditional static academic homepage, for example). The social network of connections fostered by SNSs occupies an interesting space in relation to online identity, being both an attribute of an individual and shaped by the social context they are embedded within. As such, personal network structures may reflect an expression of identity (as "public displays of connection" (Donath & boyd, 2004) or "relational self portraits[s]" (Hogan & Wellman, 2014)), while social capital has been linked to network structures (Crossley et al., 2015). Network structure may therefore have implications for the types of roles that a network can play in professional life. What types of network structures are being fostered by academic SNS and how do they relate to academics' development of an online identity?This presentation will discuss findings from a project which has used a mixed-methods social network analysis approach to analyse academics' personal networks online. The personal networks of 55 academics (sampled from survey participants, to reflect a range of disciplines and job positions) on both one academic SNS (either Academia.edu or ResearchGate) and Twitter were collected and analysed. Differences in network structure emerged according to platform, with Twitter networks being larger and less dense, while academic SNS networks were smaller and more highly clustered. There were differences between academic SNS and Twitter in the brokerage positions occupied by the participant. The results are discussed in relation to other salient studies relating network structure in online social networks to social capital, and implications for academic practice. Future work, including co-interpretive interviews to explore the significance of network structures with participants, is introduced.

Speakers
avatar for Katy Jordan

Katy Jordan

PhD student, The Open University, UK


Tuesday May 10, 2016 3:15pm - 3:40pm
Bowland 2 Lancaster House Hotel

3:15pm

Making new connections: interactive network graph to enhance sharing opportunities for TEL practice
This focus of this preliminary study is located in continuing professional development of university-based teaching practitioners. The study reports on the design of a prototype tool, an interactive visual network diagram. The purpose of the diagram is to enhance the sharing of technology-enhanced learning (TEL) practice between teaching practitioners. It enables them to identify fellow practitioners who use a particular technology in their teaching for problem-solving and sharing TEL practice. Design principles combine two theoretical approaches: Communities of Practice and Social Network Analysis. This paper argues that the complementarity nature (Cummings and van Zee 2005; Wenger, Trayner and de Laat 2011) of the two frameworks can offer good design principles for the prototype diagram to share TEL practice. For a system to identify potential connections made between professionals with the same topic of interest (a particular technology) within a wider domain (teaching practice), concepts from both theories are needed. Such a visual representation would need utilise the concept of nodes and ties from Social Network Analysis, extend domain of interest to represent sub-domains from communities of practice as well as signalling potential connections to be made.Findings of the preliminary stage of design-based research methodology included the potential usefulness of the prototype to identify peers' help for solving a problem, getting ideas on how people use a particular technology, sharing teaching practice and also practical tips for introducing the technology to students. Procedures to be supported included populating the diagram with data, maintaining the currency of data, user interactions such as viewing the visualisation, selecting relevant nodes/links, contacting selected contacts or downloading/exporting data. Another key feature of the diagram should be to visualise the potential value of future links to be made for the user. Participants also reported challenges of such a visual prototype. Firstly, whether practitioners would actually contact those whom they do not yet know and secondly, how would practitioners become aware of the diagram's existence? The paper concludes with implications to theory and practice, pointing towards the strength of combining two theoretical approaches, Social Network Analysis or Communities of Practice, in exploring the informal sharing of practice in organisations.

Speakers
avatar for Tunde Varga-Atkins

Tunde Varga-Atkins

learning technologist (use this profile please-accidentally created two!), University of Liverpool
I am interested in researching learning with technology, digital capabilities, and in particular visualisation, visual and multimodal methods. | | {sorry, I seem to have created two profiles by accident, one on the mobile, one on PC}



Tuesday May 10, 2016 3:15pm - 3:40pm
Training Room 2 Lancaster House Hotel

3:15pm

(Workshop) ΕDECES MODEL: Learning Design For Technology Enhanced Learning
Intended Audience


  1. Educators

  2. Vocational trainers

  3. Human resource managers

  4. Policy makers

  5. Instructional designers

  6. Educational researchers


Workshop Description
The workshop aims to address trends in learning, education, job market and EU priorities which could lead to different instructional perspective. The format of the learning design is based on a new model called EDECES: create more experiences (less instructions more real - life scenarios, prosopognosia, and visual representation of knowledge) and personal learning spaces (personalized curriculum, choices, mind maps), active critical dialogue and peer reviewing, explanations more about how participants have learnt rather than what, and adaptation to new digital environments (non-textual reflections and real-time reflexivity), creativity (products of rhizomatic learning), constant democratic evaluation (weekly polls) and finally sharing with the community of practice (build a networked learning organism). While connecting human to human and information, the EDECES model relies on the powers of the networks to maximize impacts and reach learning objectives. It is important to discover new paths and follow them to see where they are going like Odysseus looking for Ithaca.

Participant Engagement


  1. Dialogue

  2. Smartphones/laptops

  3. Visual story telling techniques

  4. Poll


Participant Outcomes


  1. Talk about new trends in education, learning, job market, EU policies

  2. See a different perspective on online learning

  3. Learn potential uses of non-text resources

  4. Comment on an innovative instructional design


Workshop Alignment with Conference Themes

1. Critical ideas and emerging issues
2. Designs for networked learning

Workshop Process/Activities

ACTIVITY 1. (Smartphones needed) 10’ with dialogue with the participants


  1. Who are your students? How could you find out?

  2. Who are you online?

  3. Is the community able to alter the curriculum?


ACTIVITY 2. (Storytelling, vlog) 30

1. What means to experience something rather than reading about it?
2. Talk about a learning experience versus a learning based on texts?
3. Create or find a visual map of a learning experience (Use paper, smartphones, laptops)

ACTIVITY 3. (Real –time poll) 10’
Do you find this workshop/dialogue interesting? Yes/No

ACTIVITY 4: (Build your networked learning organism: Rizomatic learning & creativity) 10’


  1. Build a network for a learning objective

  2. Case studies, personal experiences


Speakers
avatar for Chryssa Themelis

Chryssa Themelis

Doctoral advisor, The University of Bolton:Field of Innovation
Dr. Chryssa Themelis is an associate researcher at Lancaster University, doctoral advisor at Bolton University and an expert of technology enhanced learning (TEL). She works as a researcher/trainer for EU projects such as Erasmus + and coordinates the annual VocTEL conference aiming to promote TEL in Greece. In 2007,as a learning specialist, she organizes training workshops for Universities (Lancaster University,Deree college, NewYork College... Read More →


Tuesday May 10, 2016 3:15pm - 5:00pm
Dalton Suite Lancaster House Hotel

3:40pm

Teaching Presence in MOOCs: Perspectives and Learning Design Strategies
Despite the rapid growth of massive open online courses (MOOCs) in recent years, a fundamental question is still being debated widely in the education community: how to design and deliver MOOCs and move them away from the banking model of education (Freire, 1974), in which the teacher has traditionally been the central authority. Our goal in this paper is to improve the MOOC pedagogy through the lens of teaching presence. We argue that teaching presence is much more than just a facilitation strategy; rather, teaching presence is about creating a meaningful and receptive relationship between and among learners. To accomplish this we propose that instead of a single facilitative role there is a diversity in teacher roles. Teachers can themselves become learners in their own classrooms, as well as enabling and encouraging learners also take on the role of teachers in this open learning process. This leads us to propose the notion of hybrid presence, a construct that emerges out of authentic relationships among esteemed co-learners (Rheingold, 2014) in an open educational environment. This hybrid presence is particularly evident in community-based MOOCs. To aid in the design and facilitation of such MOOCs we propose three interrelated learning design principles aligning with the notion of hybrid presence: prepare to cede authority, embrace plasticity, and be present with fellow learners.All the learning design principles we propose highlight approaches that are responsive to the affordances of connectivity and diversity on the World Wide Web. In the first principle cede authority we suggest that MOOC instructors see themselves as conveners of MOOCs, and that they see the learners as co-learners in their educational journey. The second principle embrace plasticity draws attention to the importance of being receptive and responsive to the direction and nature of learner voices in distributed networks. Finally, in the last principle be present with fellow learners we suggest using tools that foster mutual empathy and awareness for both learners and teachers to be present in the  environment in authentic ways. Each principle is illustrated with specific examples from different types of community-based MOOCs, such as Change11 MOOC, MobiMOOC 2011, Rhizomatic Learning, and UNIV 200: Inquiry and the Craft of Argument.


Tuesday May 10, 2016 3:40pm - 4:05pm
Bowland 1 Lancaster House Hotel

3:40pm

Academics' experiences of networked professional learning.
This paper explores academics' writing practices, focusing on the importance of digital platforms in their processes of collaborative learning. It draws on interview data from the first phase of a research project working closely with academics across different disciplines and institutions to explore their writing practices.  The project is framed within a social practice perspective on literacy, which sees reading and writing as practices developed and maintained through participation in a social context, shaped by aspects of people's purposes, histories and institutional positionings (Barton & Hamilton, 2000; Barton, 2007).The role of an academic in higher education is diverse, and almost every aspect of this role involves specialised forms of writing and knowledge creation in a very wide range of genres for many different kinds of audiences (Hyland, 2011).  Transformations in the social and institutional structuring of higher education in recent years have changed the nature of the writing demands faced by academics. At the same time, information and communications technologies have proliferated in the higher education setting. As the demands of academic life have changed in recent years, so the writing practices have changed too.  Learning how to engage with these new kinds of genres and practices goes on throughout academics' careers, much of it in an informal way, collaborating with other people on particular projects and learning as they go along.The paper outlines characteristics of academics' ongoing professional learning, demonstrating the importance of collaborations on specific projects in generating learning in relation to intellectual and disciplinary aspects of writing, writing strategies and structures, and using digital platforms. A very wide range of digital platforms have been identified by these academics, enabling new kinds of collaboration across time and space on writing and research; but challenges around online learning are also identified, particularly the dangers of engaging in learning in public, the pressures of 'always-on'-ness, and the different values systems around publishing in different forums.

Speakers
MH

Mary Hamilton

Lancaster University
avatar for Sharon McCulloch

Sharon McCulloch

Lancaster University
I research academic writing and the ways in which academics create knowledge through writing practices. I'm interested in the role that managerialism, metrics, time, digital technology, and identity play in this. I'm also interested in the ways students engage (or not) with their reading when they use it in their writing.


Tuesday May 10, 2016 3:40pm - 4:05pm
Bowland 2 Lancaster House Hotel

3:40pm

The glow of unwork? Issues of portrayal in networked learning research
In this paper, we suggest that portrayal of research is often undervalued and seen as ‘unwork' (Galloway, 2012). Portrayal is often seen as an issue that is relatively straight forward by qualitative researchers, and invariably refers to putting the findings of the study together with excerpts from participants and usually, but not always, some interpretation. It tends to be seen as the means by which the researcher has chosen to position people and their perspectives, and it is imbued with a sense of not only positioning but also a contextual painting of a person in a particular way. Yet there are an array of issues and challenges about what portrayal can or might mean in digital spaces. In this paper we argue that researching education in a digital age provides greater or different opportunities to represent and portray data differently and suggest that these ways are underutilised. For example, for many researchers legitimacy comes through the use of participants' voices in the form of quotations. However, we argue that this stance towards plausibility and legitimacy is problematic and needs to be reconsidered in terms of understanding differences in types of portrayal, recognizing how researchers position themselves in relation to portrayal, and understanding decision-making in relation to portrayal. We suggest that there need to be new perspectives about portrayal and concept, and ideas are provided that offer a different view. Three key recommendations are made:
1. Portrayal should be reconceptualised as four overlapping concepts: mustering, folding, cartography, and portrayal. Adopting such an approach will enable audiences, researchers and other stakeholders to critique the assumptions that researchers on tour bring to portrayal and encourage reflexivity.
2. Researchers on tour should highlight the temporal, mutable and shifting nature of portrayed research findings, emphasising the need for continued and varied research to inform understanding.
3. There is a significant need for greater insight into the influence of portrayal, as well as the difference between representation and portrayal. Future studies should prioritise this, and ensure that portrayal is considered and critiqued from the outset.


Tuesday May 10, 2016 3:40pm - 4:05pm
Training Room 2 Lancaster House Hotel

4:05pm

Using Distributed Scrum for Supporting an Online Community - A Qualitative Descriptive Study of Students' Perceptions
One purpose of higher education is to prepare students for a modern and ever-changing global society characterized by increasing complexity and collaborative environments. Scrum is an agile, widely used framework for project management dealing with the development of complex products. Scrum projects are conducted in small, empowered teams with intense communication, interaction and collaboration between the team members, facilitated by a servant-leader Scrum master. Scrum has been commonly used in professional software development and is also now being adopted in other areas, including education. There have been few studies of the application of Scrum in higher education and very few of them have studied distributed Scrum in an online context.An online learning community has several positive effects for students such as increased learning, engagement, retention and lower risks for isolation and dropouts. Participating in and contributing to a team is dependent on a sense of community, which can be difficult to build up in a distributed environment where members are geographically dispersed and do not have the possibility to meet and communicate face to face.This study examines to what extent and how distributed Scrum can support building an online learning community, from a student perspective. Twenty students, enrolled in an online course in distributed software development, participated in four Scrum projects as members of distributed Scrum teams, each team consisting of five students. Students' perceptions were investigated by conducting semi-structured interviews. The interview transcripts were analyzed according to Rovai's four dimensions of a classroom community. The results indicate that students were very satisfied with their distributed Scrum projects and that they experienced a high degree of flexibility during the projects. The Scrum process promoted and initiated communication and interaction among students and they learned how to communicate and collaborate effectively in an online environment. The transparency in Scrum was perceived as a key factor to open communication and effective collaboration and also contributed to increasing their motivation and engagement in the projects. Another interesting outcome of this study was understanding the importance of creating a team with members who are similar regarding competence level, ambition and preferences in working schedule.

Speakers
avatar for Stefan Hrastinski

Stefan Hrastinski

Professor, KTH Royal Institute of Technology


Tuesday May 10, 2016 4:05pm - 4:30pm
Bowland 1 Lancaster House Hotel

4:05pm

The Interrelations of ICT and Professional Identity: Studying Group Formations in the Context of Higher Education
The currents of post-modernist thought during the late 20th century spurred an interest in identity as an object of scholarly exploration, as the massive social changes in this period revealed the instable nature of identity. Thus, the study of professional identity has been a recurrent theme in educational science through the last couple of decades, exploring the characteristics and development of professional identity. Simultaneously, the technological development in society has massively affected how we live and our work practices, increasing the intensity of Information and Communication Technology adoption and application of professionals. Educational practices of higher education are equally affected. New educational programmes emerge and course titles, pedagogies, and curricula are adapted to reflect technological changes. Thus, ICT has become a significant aspect of the content and practices of professions and disciplines, and consequently higher education. There is a lack of knowledge with regards to how professional identity are affected by developments and adoption of ICTs in society in general and higher education specifically. The author of this paper suggest Actor-Network Theory as an approach in understanding how Information and Communication Technologies contribute to the characteristics of professional identity in higher education. In the study of how actors are given an identity, the nature of groups is perceived as an on-going process made up of ties. Based on this approach, the study of professional identity must focus on the tracing of associations between heterogeneous actors and their practices. The nature or identity of the group is described through the mapping of spokespersons, anti-groups, boundaries and the inclusion of other professionals such as social scientists and statistics. When studying professional identity in the context of higher education, actors include but is not limited to students, educators, graduates, experienced professionals, but equally tools (including ICTs), curricula, professional legislation and employment statistics. The number or nature of the actors included in the mapping of ties cannot be defined from the outset. The approach will allow the voices of the actors to be heard in characterizing the social context of professional identity, revealing a multitude of perspectives. The author suggests future studies that will engage in higher education practices empirically, developing the theoretical contribution and thus elaborating our understanding of the interrelations of ICT and professional identity as well as serving as a contribution to the body of ANT literature.


Tuesday May 10, 2016 4:05pm - 4:30pm
Bowland 2 Lancaster House Hotel

4:05pm

Cyber Enigmas? Passive detection and Pedagogical agents: Can students spot the fake?
This paper presents a study that was undertaken to examine human interaction with a pedagogical agent and the passive and active detection of such agents within a synchronous, online environment. A pedagogical agent is a software application which can provide a human like interaction using a natural language interface. These may be familiar from the smartphone interfaces such as ‘Siri' or ‘Cortana', or the virtual online assistants found on some websites, such as ‘Anna' on the Ikea website. Pedagogical agents are characters on the computer screen with embodied life-like behaviours such as speech, emotions, locomotion, gestures, and movements of the head, the eye, or other parts of the body. The passive detection test is where participants are not primed to the potential presence of a pedagogical agent within the online environment. The active detection test is where participants are primed to the potential presence of a pedagogical agent. The purpose of the study was to examine how people passively detected pedagogical agents that were presenting themselves as humans in an online environment. In order to locate the pedagogical agent in a realistic higher education online environment, problem-based learning online was used. Problem-based learning online provides a focus for discussions and participation, without creating too much artificiality. The findings indicated that the ways in which students positioned the agent tended to influence the interaction between them. One of the key findings was that since the agent was focussed mainly on the pedagogical task this may have hampered interaction with the students, however some of its non-task dialogue did improve students' perceptions of the autonomous agents' ability to interact with them. It is suggested that future studies explore the differences between the relationships and interactions of learner and pedagogical agent within authentic situations, in order to understand if students' interactions are different between real and virtual mentors in an online setting.

Speakers

Tuesday May 10, 2016 4:05pm - 4:30pm
Training Room 2 Lancaster House Hotel

4:30pm

A practical action perspective and understanding on becoming a networked learning educator
In the paper we examine one of the enduring issues in networked learning of the reticence of academics to work with and/or run networked learning courses mediated by technology. The paper is based on an analysis of the situated practice of members of an academic department and the work done in becoming a networked learning educator. It builds on the recent interest in practice based studies (PBS) that has led to an increase in looking at learning and knowing through the doing of practice. Following Schatzki, (2001) we see practice as an embodied and materially mediated activity around practical understanding. The research approach we have chosen to look at this is that associated with ethnomethodology; which has a long-standing interest in the understanding of practical action. In the paper we offer  an account of the social fact of the competent university teacher as constructed in what Garfinkel (1967) refers to as ‘common understanding' exhibited in the methods used and descriptions of practice-in-action of members of the department. Further we suggest that members of the department exhibited three emerging practical understandings of a networked learning pedagogy;- Need to have an integrated design framework to a NL programme that is clear to students but also to staff - Any such framework needs to be able to accommodate differences in personal staff styles and ways of engaging with students- The framework should build on existing understandings, methods and work done by members on the development of pedagogical design and frameworksWe go on to examine an account of designing an online module and the practice-in-action exhibited by Emma, one of the authors, in becoming a networked learning educator. For illustrative purposes we focus on the methods used and work done in Emma's practice-in-action in an account entitled 'shifting responsibility to students'.We conclude with the suggestion that the pattern and rhythm of the module could be used as a starting point for a pedagogical framework that can accommodate and/or exhibit the practical understanding of pedagogy for members of the department.

Speakers
avatar for Vivien Hodgson

Vivien Hodgson

Lancaster University Management School


Tuesday May 10, 2016 4:30pm - 4:55pm
Bowland 1 Lancaster House Hotel

4:30pm

Connecting Scholarship in the Open: A Scoping Review of Academic Researcher Personal Learning Support Structures
Social media and public engagement play an increasing role in how people across ages, disciplines, and interests communicate with each other and perform their own lives. While different audiences participate for a variety of reasons, researchers increasingly explore how connections are made, remain, and shift, along with the whats and whys these occur, especially within personal learning networks or environments related to academic learning (Buchem, Attwell, & Torres, 2011; Dabbagh & Kitsantas, 2012; Kop, 2011; Rahimi, Berg, & Veen, 2014; Veletsianos, 2012). While researcher development is a growing speciality within higher education academic discourse (McAlpine & Amundsen, 2009; McAlpine, Horn, & Rath, 2011; Wisker et al., 2010; Wisker, Robinson, Trafford, Lilly, & Warnes, 2004), little is known about researcher support structures of those engaging in research in public. Social media is meant to promote and share in conversations, with personal learning networks and connected communities increasingly utilized by developing researchers.With social media and networking technologies constantly shifting how people use, learn from, and make meaning with them, a scoping study is a useful methodology to explore this area. A purpose of a scoping study includes examining the range and nature of an area of research, determine value of undergoing a full systematic review, summarizing findings of previous studies, and identifying gaps in the literature (Arksey & O'Malley, 2005; Paré, Trudel, Jaana, & Kitsiou, 2015). While there are numerous kinds of literature reviews, scoping studies are particularly useful when a rapid overview of the literature is needed to broadly map what is currently known about an area (Pham et al., 2014), especially one that is not directly linked to a specific disciplinary community or function.The question that will guide this study is: How do developing researchers learn in networked public spaces?

Speakers
avatar for Jeffrey M. Keefer

Jeffrey M. Keefer

Director of Training & Knowledge Management (Urban Parks) + Educational Researcher + Professor, New York University & The Trust for Public Land
Director of Training & Knowledge Management (Urban Parks) + Educational Researcher + Professor = Actor-Network Theory + Liminality + Connected Learning


Tuesday May 10, 2016 4:30pm - 4:55pm
Bowland 2 Lancaster House Hotel

4:30pm

An investigation of technology mediation in interdisciplinary research within Higher Education
There has been a growing awareness of interdisciplinary collaboration as a means of addressing new challenges within academic research, and digital technology has been a core underlying support in these endeavours (Scanlon et al., 2013, p.49; Haythornthwaite et al., 2003, p.144). ‘Digital technologies will be a core aspect of interaction and cooperation between different fields of expertise’ (Costa, 2011, p.84). This paper investigates the process of technology-mediated knowledge co-production in interdisciplinary research in Higher Education, and explores how researchers from different disciplines appropriate technology to break down disciplinary boundaries. Through the presentation of findings from a collective case study of two interdisciplinary research projects based at the University of Oxford - the Ashmolean Latin Inscriptions Project (AshLi) and Poetry Visualisation: Imagery Lens for Visualising Text Corpora (PVis) - this paper aims to challenge conventional approaches to investigating the use of technology in interdisciplinary scholarship, responding to the paucity of research at the intersection of interdisciplinarity, collaborative research and technology in academia.Findings from interviews with academic researchers, and a visual analysis of project artefacts, elucidate a mutually shaping relationship between innovative research technologies and new interdisciplinary research practices. Technology can be constructed through the integration of disciplinary perspectives. Researchers from different disciplines both adopt and adapt technologies, and through these processes, disciplinary boundaries are broken down, and knowledge is co-created. This iterative process of mutual shaping assumes different nuances according to the disciplinary ‘make-up’ of a project, the technologies involved, and the ways in which the researchers appropriate technologies according to their disciplinary backgrounds.Using the social construction of technology (SCOT) as a theoretical framework illuminates researchers’ diverse perceptions of technologies and interdisciplinary practices, and highlights the importance of interpretation in the use of technology within these contexts. This paper contributes to the area of networked learning by highlighting that collaboration around research technologies has not been explored very much in the field, nor has the potential for building on other concepts from the area of science and technology studies (STS) such as Actor-Network Theory (Clough et al., 2010; Adams and Thompson, 2014). In this way, the findings hold broad implications for substantive promotion of a more nuanced view of modern interdisciplinary practices.


Tuesday May 10, 2016 4:30pm - 4:55pm
Training Room 2 Lancaster House Hotel

7:30pm

Conference Dinner
Tuesday May 10, 2016 7:30pm - 11:30pm
Bowland 1 & 2 Lancaster House Hotel
 
Wednesday, May 11
 

9:30am

Symposium 3 (Introduction) Synergies, differences, and bridges between Networked Learning, Connected Learning, and Open Education (#NLbridge)
Symposium Introduction

“We have to build our half of the bridge, no matter who or where we happen to be.” -- Colum McCann

This interactive symposium interprets conference themes in terms of the dialogical phenomenon of boundary crossing, examining the future of networked learning through its relationships with other digital pedagogies, educational practices, and increasingly ubiquitous digital elements of everyday life. In it, we will frame digital networks as boundary objects and modern Þingvellirs: heterotopic (liminal, fleeting and even transgressive, yet potentially empowering) parliaments that facilitate the meeting, negotiation, and decisive action around culture, belief systems, and behaviour. We will argue that to remain relevant in the changing world, the networked learning community must look beyond ourselves and our interpretation of the digital network to “build our half of the bridge” towards other entities existing just beyond our boundaries. The symposium presenters/facilitators will explore with participants why and how the networked learning community might bridge beyond itself and into a broader context, one that situates us in relationship with other pedagogies such as connected learning (Ito et al., 2013) and open education (Weller, 2014); places us intentionally within the rising but potentially productive turmoil between informal and formal learning advocates; and studies our assumptions of both networking and connection through exploration of the apparently “other” practice of disconnection.

The symposium papers will be synthesized rather than treated independently, beginning with a précis of the interlinked ideas explored in the three papers. You will then be invited to participate in reflection and conversation. Our conversation prompts will include the following -- please come with your ideas, questions, and insights:

• Negotiating openness as individual scholars, educators, and citizens.
• Blending informal and formal learning spaces, practices, and networks, and negotiating expectations between students, instructors, and institutions.
• Exploring the limits of the network by engaging with the concept of disconnective practice, as a critically reflexive practice of open, networked, and connected learning.

Acts of bridging often begin with the process of exploring the core identities of the entities that share a boundary, legitimizing the coexistence of multiple narratives. Then communication and translation take place, with an expectation not of consensus, but of shared understanding and construction of new knowledge (Akkerman & Baker, 2011). Using the symposium hashtag #NLbridge and the conference hashtag #NLC2016, the symposium conversation will begin online before the conference (via our blogs and Twitter), carry on during the conference, and hopefully continue afterward. We hope to facilitate bridging within and beyond the networked learning research community in the form of ongoing reflection, conversation, collaboration, and transformation.

Speakers
avatar for Catherine Cronin

Catherine Cronin

educator & researcher, National University of Ireland
Hi, I'm Catherine Cronin - educator and researcher at at NUI Galway (now settled in Ireland, but originally from New York City). My work focuses on open education, digital identity, and digital & network literacies. I'm currently doing PhD research in the area of open educational practices in higher education.
avatar for Laura Gogia

Laura Gogia

Business Intelligence Liaison, State Council of Higher Education for Virginia
I design and write about connected learning experiences in higher and adult education settings. I help people learn to navigate the open web for the purposes of lifelong learning, collaboration, professional development, community engagement, and fun .


Wednesday May 11, 2016 9:30am - 9:35am
Dalton Suite Lancaster House Hotel

9:30am

Qualitative differences in students’ perceptions of others in a networked learning environment
In networked learning practice the emphasis on human relations for learning beyond engagement with learning materials using information and communication technologies is a significant shift from the prevalent classroom-based lecture which students are used to. In networked learning teachers are assumed to take a less prominent position permitting students to experience learning through active participation in cooperative and collaborative activities with others. This paper proposes a constitutive description for considering human players for learning in the formal networked learning environment hence departing from previous depictions of contrasting views reported in the research literature. Different ways teachers and students are perceived to contribute to networked learning experiencing are understood in distinction and in relation to each other. This portrayal is the research outcome of a phenomenographic investigation which led to a configuration comprised of three qualitatively different ways how students account for the teacher and other students contributing to their learning in a formal networked learning environment. The hierarchically inclusive categories describing this variation have the student perceiving other students as separately persevering with their own studies and the teacher as director of all learning; to the perception of other students as direct contributors through their visible activity and interactivity and the teacher as organiser and guide  for students’ learning; to the perception of other students as co-creators for learning and the teacher as convenor coming close to being co-actor.  The structural threads drawing these categories together into a single coherent whole are the academic role or active responsibility for learning teachers and other students are perceived to assume which across the structuring continuum are in a relationship of pairwise alignment.These findings project different perceptions as all legitimate and suggest that in deepening awareness teachers and learners gravitate towards becoming teachers and learners for each other. Moreover in this writing is emphasised the constitutive and open nature of phenomenographic description projecting fluidity for thinking about students' perceptions of human others as contributors to NL experiencing. All this emphasises that networked learning provision needs to incorporate a directed effort to accommodate diversity in how students perceive and hence relate to human others for learning when in the formal networked learning setting, building in support to encourage students embracing different perceptions to experiment different learning and teaching roles as networked learning participants.

Speakers
avatar for Maria Cutajar

Maria Cutajar

Senior Lecturer II, Junior College, University of Malta


Wednesday May 11, 2016 9:30am - 9:55am
Bowland 1 Lancaster House Hotel

9:30am

Networked learning: an opportunity to enhance the learning opportunities for students with high functioning autism or Asperger’s Syndrome?
The purpose of this paper is to consider whether or not networked learning has the potential to enhance learning opportunities for students with high functioning autism or Asperger's Syndrome, through reflective consideration of the cognitive theories associated with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder and Passey's (2014) key constructs of learning. In so doing, the paper initially provides a clarification of the criteria for a diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorder, and the problematic issues associated with concepts of high functioning autism. It then presents psychological theories of the autism spectrum and discusses a range of associated characteristics that may prevail when an individual has high functioning autism or Asperger's Syndrome. The paper briefly explores the way in which educational practitioners seek to achieve inclusion for students with high functioning autism or Asperger's syndrome and the ways in which these students may, nonetheless, be implicitly excluded from the academic route that their measured intelligence quotient suggests might be possible. The paper then considers key conceptual lenses that provide insight into constructs of learning, highlighting the way in which the application of such lenses might require adaptation in the light of the cognitive theories of autism. It briefly presents some of the ways in which technology is currently and predominantly used to ameliorate some of the impairments associated with autism and then looks to consider the extent to which various forms of networked learning might extend the academic learning capability of individuals with high functioning autism. The paper also discusses the way in which co-morbidities of autistic spectrum disorder may exacerbate the learning barriers of students with high functioning autism or Asperger's Syndrome and impact upon the affordance that such environments might offer to those students. The paper concludes by proposing suggestions for further research. It also suggests potential development activity that could support a better understanding of the ways in which networked learning might be adapted to support not only students in higher education, but also for those studying at secondary level for whom mainstream or special schooling remains problematic. It further considers the ways in which education research practitioners might engage with autism charitable organisations, international practitioners and clinicians in the field of autism spectrum disorders.

Speakers

Wednesday May 11, 2016 9:30am - 9:55am
Bowland 2 Lancaster House Hotel

9:35am

Symposium 3 (Dis)connective Practice in Heterotopic Spaces for Networked and Connected Learning
(Dis)connective Practice in Heterotopic Spaces for Networked and Connected Learning

This paper explores the implications of learners’ and educators’ appropriation of Social Networking Sites (SNS) for informal open, networked and connected learning through the lens of learner practices within sociotechnical assemblages. Relevant themes identified from the literature are the impact of an advocacy approach in open, networked and connected learning; the mutuality of openness and closure; time-space online; connective and dis-connective practices and heterotopias.
A theory of Disconnective Practice has been developed by Light in relation to SNS that helps us to understand practice through considering disconnection as well as the more usual perspective of connection. Mejias' critique of the nodocentric view presented by SNS can help by alerting us to the concept of paranodes, spaces that lie beyond the logic of the network. Providers of SNS benefit from connection, media production and sharing by members that enhance their advertising services.
I explore heterotopias, unsettling fragmentary places, in open practice using two vignettes of PhD students, one in a social context and another in a research context. The first vignette explores the global nature of context and culture collapse across SNS, as a student moves to a different country and culture to undertake PhD study. This vignette highlights the impact of the combination of persistent data and (hyper)connection to extended and invisible audiences. The second vignette explores how different regimes of Open Access publishing operate within the politics of Higher Education (HE) contexts.
Although heterotopias are important to open, networked and connected learning they can be difficult to achieve: disconnective practice can help. Networks crave connection and resist our scrutiny. Thus learners need to be able to practice disconnection as well as connection, and be able and prepared to challenge the logic of SNS and institutional systems.
How can digital literacy practices of learners and teachers take account of learning on SNS when the focus of SNS is to benefit advertising services that are the actual customers?

Speakers

Wednesday May 11, 2016 9:35am - 10:00am
Dalton Suite Lancaster House Hotel

9:55am

Experience and networked learning
This paper reviews the way experience has been understood and the research agendas associated with that understanding in networked learning. In the contemporary context the student 'experience' is part of common discourse and often associated with a consumerist discourse, especially in the UK and US. The widespread use of digital and networked technologies in education has also given rise to a de-centring of the subject and an identification of actors in network settings as hybrids of humans and machines (including software and code in this category) or including machines and objects as actors within a network. With a decentred subject does it still make sense to understand learning in terms of the subject's experience anymore?This paper explores these debates in the context of current educational discourse and in relation to prior research and theory in networked learning. Experience has a long history associated with phenomenological research and the related but distinct approach of phenomenography. It is related to central issues for education and learning, in particular the place of the individual cognising subject. Experience can be thought of as either the essential distinguishing component of the individual human subject, or experience can be understood as the subjective component of one kind of element in a wider assemblage of humans and machines. In the later understanding of experience in assemblages human experience does not separate the human actor from other actors in a network and they are understood symmetrically.It is a long standing position that the human sciences have a different relationship to their objects of study than natural sciences because the human sciences can have access to interior accounts from the objects they observe and because human subjects can behave in ways that are not predicable, replicable and which depend on an active construction of experience in the world. For networked learning the position and role of the human subject is a central concern and human-human interaction has always been considered essential. This paper reasserts the need for a proper understanding of experience and explores the place of the human subject in the developing research agendas found in networked learning.

Speakers
avatar for Chris Jones

Chris Jones

Liverpool John Moores University
I am a Professor in the School of Education at Liverpool John Moores University. I published a book "Networked Learning: An Educational Paradigm for the Age of Digital Networks" in the Springer book series associated with the conference in June 2015.


Wednesday May 11, 2016 9:55am - 10:20am
Bowland 1 Lancaster House Hotel

9:55am

The role of human actors in legitimising informal networked learning of academic digital practice.
Ideas from phenomenography inform this study to investigate variation in staff experiences of a decision to introduce digitally shared academic supervision record keeping in a university-based School of Healthcare Sciences in the United Kingdom. At the time, the school's assessment and feedback strategy entitled students to individual formative supervision feedback on all draft essays before submitting them for summative assessment. Prior to the move to a shared digital record, records of supervisory events were stored in individual email inboxes or networked file-store, as well as on paper that was sometimes held in more than one location for the same student. A blogging platform within the university's virtual learning environment was used because, while it allowed students to only view their own records, the whole academic marking team could access any of the students' records.
Lave and Wenger's ‘Legitimate Peripheral Participation' provides a theoretical lens for analysis of data collected in interviews with four staff who were selected to represent variations between and within the 'old-timers' and 'new-comers'. The phenomenographic 'outcome space' table is eschewed in favour of a narrative presentation of data that seeks to provide a 'direct encounter' with the phenomena of interest. As such, it represents a case study of informal networked learning, by those on the journey of 'newcomers' from the periphery to full participation and those who guide them. This analysis is challenged by the data, given the varied ways in which staff approached the change to digitally shared supervision record keeping and how the shared records were or were not taken up as a resource to help new staff learn the practice of academic supervision. Staff who had recently moved into academic roles from senior positions in clinical practice experienced dissonance when adjusting to a more permissive information security regime. The study offers insights into the cultural conceptual 'baggage' that can inhibit productive networked learning and the importance of human actors to encourage it and overcome these barriers. The role of students in challenging recalcitrant 'old-timers' into adopting the new digital practice is noted. These actors are held to speak back to theories within networked learning, actor-network theory and Lave and Wenger's communities of practice.
The work was undertaken in part fulfilment of a doctorate in e-Research and Technology-Enhanced Learning at Lancaster University.

Speakers
avatar for Mike Johnson

Mike Johnson

Lecturer: Information Management and Teaching, Cardiff University
Fully signed up member of the networked learning fan club.


Wednesday May 11, 2016 9:55am - 10:20am
Bowland 2 Lancaster House Hotel

10:00am

Symposium 3 Open, networked and connected learning: Bridging the formal/informal learning divide in higher education
Open, networked and connected learning: Bridging the formal/informal learning divide in higher education

In the age of ‘networked individualism’ (Castells, 2004; Rainie & Wellman, 2012) students enter higher education as networked individuals with extant and diverse informal learning practices, networks and identities. While higher education institutions typically focus on Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) as the primary online hubs for students, students themselves use a wide range of online tools and resources for communicating, coordinating, collaborating and learning, i.e. building their own Personal Learning Environments (PLEs). While institutions and academic staff tend to see institutional VLEs and learner-chosen PLEs as separate entities, learners do not (Reed, 2013). Students often find that their informal learning practices sit uneasily within the formal education environments within which they study. Open education, particularly open educational practices (OEP), is one way that the formal/informal learning divide in higher education may be bridged. Advocates of open education highlight its potential to make education more inclusive and equitable. However, some critiques of open education view such claims as utopian, ignoring the workings of systemic power and privilege. This paper explores the formal/informal learning divide in higher education, the complexities and different interpretations of open education, and potential benefits for students and educators in bridging the formal/informal learning divide, i.e. working together within higher education learning communities but also as nodes in “broad networks of distributed creativity” (J. Ito, 2011).

Speakers
avatar for Catherine Cronin

Catherine Cronin

educator & researcher, National University of Ireland
Hi, I'm Catherine Cronin - educator and researcher at at NUI Galway (now settled in Ireland, but originally from New York City). My work focuses on open education, digital identity, and digital & network literacies. I'm currently doing PhD research in the area of open educational practices in higher education.


Wednesday May 11, 2016 10:00am - 10:25am
Dalton Suite Lancaster House Hotel

10:20am

Teaching-led research? Exploring the digital agencies of software in qualitative research
This work-in-progress paper explores the intersection of technologies and software with the practices, of qualitative research and qualitative data analysis. Computer aided qualitative data analysis software (CAQDAS) packages such as ATLAS.ti, NVivo and HyperRESEARCH are the focus of competing claims and critiques. We explore the positioning, continuities and disjunctures between manufacturers promoting their software, positioning in teaching and training materials and a range of views in the literature from critical to laudatory, as well as their prevalence in research on networked learning. The pre-eminence and influence of expository writing and paucity of empirical research underscore the relevance and potential contribution of this project, We argue that part of that contribution comes from drawing on insights from science and technology studies (STS) which offer a well-developed vocabulary and set of approaches for exploring the agencies and mediation of technologies in the practices of research.The initial stages of the research project are outlined including online participant recruitment via facebook, methods of screen-share remote interviewing to generate rich data exploring software use, and incorporating accounts of  researchers' practices. Their transformation and mediation to become "data" through different software packages are briefly explored.Drawing on Latour's model of the two-faced Janus of science with which contrasts "science in the making" with "ready made science" we turn to consider ways in which this project can invert the usual trope of University education as research led, asking instead how a research project could become teaching-led. We briefly explore some of the initial approaches and opportunities this has created for opening up the black-box of research practices and shifting software training methods to engage learners in a process of discovery as "learning  in the making" rather than being tasked with stepping through fixed frames of "ready made teaching".

Speakers
IB

Ibrar Bhatt

Lancaster University
avatar for Steven Wright

Steven Wright

NVivo/ATLAS.ti Trainer, Learning Technologist, www.caqdas.co.uk + Lancaster University
I run write, research and teach workshops on using digital tools and software in qualitative research and qualitative data analysis. | | I previously organised the Actor-Network Theory double symposium at NLC2014 - bringing together different projects and people to explore this sensibility for exploring the entangling and inseparability of "technology" and "the social" and how it can be used for learning.


Wednesday May 11, 2016 10:20am - 10:45am
Bowland 1 Lancaster House Hotel

10:20am

Assessment in clinical simulation: current practices, changing influences, and the potential role of networked learning in shaping the future
Clinical simulation is a well-established practice in health professional education programs employing technologies to replace or amplify real experiences with guided experiences representing certain key characteristics or behaviours of selected physical or abstract systems. Educators generally employ collaborative debriefing as an integral part of clinical simulation for reflexive and experiential learning.  A movement in higher education towards using simulation for competency-based assessment for high stakes testing such as certification or licensure of health professions has been observed. In face of such a complex evolution in educational practice, social practice theory may be useful to gain an understanding of the ways in which contextual factors affect how assessment practices become embedded into higher education contexts. Therefore, in this paper we take a social practice perspective and contend that these pressures are externally derived requirements. We note that in health professional education these requirements are often observed to be mandated by professional regulatory bodies and discipline-specific accrediting agencies.Debate over the appropriateness of each of the various purposeful approaches to assessment (assessment ‘of’, ‘for’, and ‘as’ learning) are not novel. However, our examination of how a potential move from assessment ‘for’ and ‘as’ learning towards adoption assessment ‘of’ learning practices in clinical simulation brings to light concerns over this contemporary pedagogical movement. To now, the body of literature that demonstrates the pedagogic advantages of employing clinical simulation in health professional education has been informed by research into learning environments that are highly supportive of reflexive and collaborative debriefing. Through review of the literature on assessment in clinical simulation we identify several important social elements of that learning environment, including trust and ontological security. We suggest these social elements may be at risk in the face of these evolving assessment practices, and that they warrant deeper investigation in this context. Lastly, we compare themes that emerge through this review of the literature with the essential values of networked learning. With connectivity and co-production of knowledge at the fore, the parallels between these themes and values suggest the utility in adoption of networked learning theory as a pedagogical framework in clinical simulation. Networked learning theory offers the area of assessment practices in clinical simulation, an at once undertheorized yet highly technologically enhanced and connected approach to learning, with a pedagogical framework upon which to build deepened understanding of an important social learning phenomenon.

Speakers
avatar for Gale Parchoma

Gale Parchoma

Associate Professor, University of Saskatchewan


Wednesday May 11, 2016 10:20am - 10:45am
Bowland 2 Lancaster House Hotel

10:25am

Symposium 3 Collaborative Curiosity: Demonstrating relationships between open education, networked learning and connected learning
Collaborative Curiosity: Demonstrating relationships between open education, networked learning and connected learning

Networked learning, open education, and connected learning are emerging pedagogical fields that explore the opportunities, challenges, and implications of teaching and learning in digital environments. Propelled forward from and by a digital networked participatory culture, the three pedagogical approaches share core assumptions about the importance of educational equality and access, self-determined and participatory learning, and authentic and relevant learning experiences. While open education, networked learning, and connected learning share an ethical stance, they emphasize different aspects of the digital pedagogical experience and manifest themselves in different ways. While the open education field tends to focus on the development and scalability of educational resources and practices, networked learning tends to emphasize the pedagogical experience of learning communities and interpersonal connections, and connected learning promotes instructional designs for holistic, participatory learning. Moreover, the scholarly outlets that support research and development across open education, networked learning, and connected learning exist in distinct educational sectors and geographic locations; in recent years, open education has evolved on a global scale, but networked learning is most commonly associated with universities in the United Kingdom and Europe, and connected learning is experiencing growth in the informal, K-12 learning spaces of the United States. After providing a brief historical and epistemological introduction to open education, networked learning, and connected learning, this paper aims to explore the relationships between them by analysing their intertwined presence within a single university course. The course, Collaborative Curiosity: Designing Community-Based Research (CMST 691), was a fully online, open, graduate-level course offered by Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) in the summer of 2015. As part of a university-wide initiative to promote student engagement and deeper learning through digital engagement and connected learning, the course was intentionally designed to align with open education, networked learning, and connected learning practices. After teasing out and discussing the elements of “open,” “networked,” and “connected” as separate entities, this paper will briefly argue for treating them as distinct but related and synergistic educational approaches. Attempts should be made to build a common language and maintain pathways for communication across open education, networked learning, and connected learning scholars and scholarship, so that they will not become isolated by their existence in separate geographies.

Speakers
avatar for Laura Gogia

Laura Gogia

Business Intelligence Liaison, State Council of Higher Education for Virginia
I design and write about connected learning experiences in higher and adult education settings. I help people learn to navigate the open web for the purposes of lifelong learning, collaboration, professional development, community engagement, and fun .


Wednesday May 11, 2016 10:25am - 10:50am
Dalton Suite Lancaster House Hotel

10:45am

Discursive psychology as a methodology to explore how multiculturalism affects use of learning technologies
Networked learning remains a new field and many methodological, theoretical and other perspectives are used to learn more about it. Moreover, there is encouragement for the field's interdisciplinary researchers to take alternative methodological approaches. This paper provides valuable insights into a methodological approach which is little used in networked learning research. It reports an exploratory study to establish the value of a discursive psychology lens to understand uses of technology by international learners, and specifically how the language students' use conveys their practices. The study was prompted when I questioned how multiculturalism might affect an institution's virtual presence and whether students from alternative cultures had varying online learning needs. Discursive psychology was selected as the methodological approach as it has the potential to show how the social world is enacted in a more insightful and sophisticated way than happens when qualitative data are accepted at face value. The study involved secondary analysis of an ESRC-funded dataset and this paper illustrates analysis of talk by four undergraduate learners from Africa and Asia. The paper shows how participants constructed their identities and gave meaning to their talk. It also exemplifies the dynamics of talk and the work undertaken via the expression of thoughts, and how these supplement the descriptive meaning of words. Aspects of what is emotional about participants' talk are highlighted, including their sense of struggle. A gap is found between students' uses of technology for learning purposes and what would be required in a networked learning environment. There is also evidence of threshold moments within learners' positioning. It is clear that educational experiences could be enhanced by educators recognising that students' needs vary, evolving over time. An argument to place the learner at the centre and to design from learners' perspectives to be better able to lead them forward from where they are regarding use of technologies to where learning can take place is made. Given this paper's focus on talk from international students it is particularly relevant that those in global online learning contexts appreciate the extent of meaning suggested by this paper's findings. A lack of such awareness carries with it a risk of not sufficiently appreciating what learners are thinking and this gap will leave educators ill-prepared to provide optimal learner-centric support structures.

Speakers
avatar for Claire Raistrick

Claire Raistrick

Education & Development, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick


Wednesday May 11, 2016 10:45am - 11:10am
Bowland 1 Lancaster House Hotel

10:45am

Rehabilitation of People with a Brain Injury Through the Lens of Networked Learning. Identity Formation in Distributed Virtual Environments
This paper will demonstrate how avatar- mediated interactions and learning in networks might lead to identity formation and rehabilitation of language after a brain injury. With references to Vygotsky's notion on the social origins of higher mental functions (1978) and Hutchins claims that cognition is something that is distributed through an external stage (Hutchins, 1995), we will discuss identity formation after a brain injury in relation to Networked Learning (NL). The discussion is based on data from the first author’s Ph.D. thesis on avatar-mediated rehabilitation of people with aphasia (PWA). In the Ph.D. rehabilitation is conceived as a collaborative endeavour conducted in a social virtual community with peer-to-peer interactions. Central is the comprehension that re-learning language is related to social interactions and renegotiating of identity.Losing the ability to communicate makes it difficult to re-tell your own story and you are in risk for being marginalised. This is substantiated by research. Although the focus in aphasia intervention has shifted from relearning the correct language to a greater emphasis life participation and regaining a feeling of belonging to society and family, there is still a need for concrete suggestions for approaches that provide new contexts in which identity formation on-going can be renegotiated.Learning in online social networks has over the years been recognised as a way to construct learning, and identities through participative interactions. Recent years avatar mediated activities in games, online communities, and E-learning have been a part of everyday play, communication and learning. As these methods are still in their infancy, reflections on our traditional learning, teaching and rehabilitation, are needed. Teachers and/or speech therapist need a deeper understanding of the methods and to become skilled in practicing technology mediated teaching. We will discuss the positions that rehabilitation in online communities and NL share and how insights from the NL pedagogy can inform the development of rehabilitation even further. Finally we will introduce the concept of locale framework and autobiographical memory related to networked learning. 


Wednesday May 11, 2016 10:45am - 11:10am
Bowland 2 Lancaster House Hotel

10:50am

Symposium 3 Plenary


Wednesday May 11, 2016 10:50am - 11:15am
Dalton Suite Lancaster House Hotel

11:15am

Refreshments
Wednesday May 11, 2016 11:15am - 11:45am
Conference Reception Lancaster House Hotel

11:45am

Final Plenary Session
The conference will be brought to a close with a panel discussion of key questions for the future of networked learning raised by conference participants.

Please email your questions to NLC2016@lancaster.ac.uk by 5pm on Tuesday 10 May. It may not be possible to discuss all questions in the time available, so the co chairs and members of the local committee will select those we believe will generate an interesting and useful discussion.

Speakers
avatar for Laura Czerniewicz

Laura Czerniewicz

A/Prof, University of Cape Town
avatar for Petar Jandric

Petar Jandric

professor, Zagreb University of Applied Sciences
avatar for Mike Johnson

Mike Johnson

Lecturer: Information Management and Teaching, Cardiff University
Fully signed up member of the networked learning fan club.
avatar for Steven Wright

Steven Wright

NVivo/ATLAS.ti Trainer, Learning Technologist, www.caqdas.co.uk + Lancaster University
I run write, research and teach workshops on using digital tools and software in qualitative research and qualitative data analysis. | | I previously organised the Actor-Network Theory double symposium at NLC2014 - bringing together different projects and people to explore this sensibility for exploring the entangling and inseparability of "technology" and "the social" and how it can be used for learning.


Wednesday May 11, 2016 11:45am - 1:00pm
Bowland 1 & 2 Lancaster House Hotel

12:45pm

Close of Conference
Wednesday May 11, 2016 12:45pm - 1:00pm
Bowland 1 & 2 Lancaster House Hotel